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Understanding The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Richard Passingham
ISBN : 9780198844570
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64. 29 MB
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A successor to the acclaimed Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex, Understanding the Prefrontal Cortex presents a careful study of the anatomical connections in this brain region, showing how each area and subarea of the brain has a unique pattern of connections, and exploring the transformation that this area performs - from its inputs to it outputs. The book starts with two chapters of foundational material, before considering five subdivisions of the prefrontal cortex, and looking at the transformation that each one performs. Next it considers how the prefrontal cortex interacts with the rest of the brain, including not only cortical areas but also subcortical areas such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The book ends with a final section in which these principles are applied to the human brain. It starts by discussing the expansion of the prefrontal cortex during human evolution. It then considers how the human brain has co-opted mechanisms that existed in our primate ancestors, and by providing new inputs had extended them so as to support reasoning, remembering events from the distant past and imagining events in the distant future, the sense of self, language, the ability to understand the mental states of others, and the ability to cooperate and learn social and moral rules. Written by a leading brain scientist, the book will be an important and influential contribution to the neuroscience literature.

Understanding The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : R. E. Passingham
ISBN : 0192582992
Genre : Brain
File Size : 42. 3 MB
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A successor to the acclaimed 'Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex', 'Understanding the Prefrontal Cortex' presents a study of the anatomical connections in this brain region, showing how each area and subarea of the brain has a unique pattern of connections, and exploring the transformation that this area performs - from its inputs to it outputs.

The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Joaquin Fuster
ISBN : 012407815X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 45. 52 MB
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The Prefrontal Cortex, Fifth Edition, provides users with a thoroughly updated version of this comprehensive work that has historically served as the classic reference on this part of the brain. The book offers a unifying, interdisciplinary perspective that is lacking in other volumes written about the frontal lobes, and is, once again, written by the award-winning author who discovered "memory cells," the physiological substrate of working memory. The fifth edition constitutes a comprehensive update, including all the major advances made on the physiology and cognitive neuroscience of the region since publication in 2008. All chapters have been fully revised, and the overview of prefrontal functions now interprets experimental data within the theoretical framework of the new paradigm of cortical structure and dynamics (the Cognit Paradigm), addressing the accompanying social, economic, and cultural implications. Provides a distinctly interdisciplinary view of the prefrontal cortex, covering all major methodologies, from comparative anatomy to modern imaging Unique analysis and synthesis of a large body of basic and clinical data on the subject (more than 2000 references) Written by an award-winning author who discovered "memory cells," the physiological substrate of working memory Synthesizes evidence that the prefrontal cortex constitutes a complex pre-adaptive system Incorporates emerging study of the role of the frontal lobes in social, economic, and cultural adaptation

The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Angela C. Roberts
ISBN : 0198524412
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79. 37 MB
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The role of the prefrontal cortex is one of the most topical and important areas of research in contemporary neuropsychology. This cortical region appears to be linked with executive processes affecting many diverse areas of cognitive function. Working memory, information processing, behavioural organization, attention, judgement, and the ability to cope with novel experiences are just some of the diverse processes it affects. This book brings together contributions from some of the world's leading researchers on the prefrontal cortex. They discuss the many recent theoretical and technical advances in the field - for example in our understanding of the neural architecture of the prefrontal cortex, in the development of comparable texts of cognition in humans and other primates, in our understanding of the relationships between neuronal activity and behaviour, and in the increasing use of functional neuroimaging to identify different levels of organization within the prefrontal cortex. These important developments make this an ideal time to address the many questions and debates that have arisen about the role and functional organization of this area of the brain. One of the first books to be written on the subject, The Prefrontal Cortex is a state-of-the-art account of our knowledge of this exciting subject. It will be welcomed by all researchers and students in neuro- and cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.

Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Satoru Otani
ISBN : 9781402079498
Genre : Medical
File Size : 33. 12 MB
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This volume, Prefrontal Cortex: from Synaptic Plasticity to Cognition, is an interdisciplinary approach to characterize the function of the anterior portion of the frontal lobe in rodents and human and non-human primates. The specific topics discussed in the chapters of this volume are purposefully diverse: they range from membrane properties of prefrontal neurons to cognitive psychology. Nevertheless, this volume must not be regarded as a mere collection of writings with the different sub-themes. As you will see, chapters often vigorously encompass domains of the prefrontal field in effort to provide a big picture. That is actually what we attempted to do in this volume. On one hand, we have accumulated knowledge on the properties of neurons and synapses in the prefrontal cortex as well as the actions of critical neuromodulators such as dopamine. On the other hand, behavioral and cognitive neurosciences have begun to reveal the fascinating role of the prefrontal cortex in such mental processes as working memory, attention switching and rule following, and long-term memory. Needless to say, our ultimate goal as neurobiologists is to know what relationship there is between these cellular and cognitive processes. This volume is meant to serve as a comprehensive introduction towards that goal. Readers will be informed, for example, of how plasticity of prefrontal neurons is regulated, how it is involved in certain cognitive processes in rodents, and how the rodent models can apply to the primates.

Understanding Autism

Author : Steven O. Moldin
ISBN : 9781420004205
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 91 MB
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Taking an all-inclusive look at the subject, Understanding Autism: From Basic Neuroscience to Treatment reviews state-of-the-art research on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of autism. The book addresses potential mechanisms that may underlie the development of autism and the neural systems that are likely to be affected by these molecular, genetic, and infectious etiologies. It reviews key findings that inform diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical neuroscience, and treatment. The book concludes with a discussion of the economic cost of autism and provides a biomedical and public health perspective of the impact of this devastating disease. With chapters authored by clinical and basic researchers at the forefront of molecular and systems neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, and health economics, the book presents a powerful and comprehensive synthesis of current research on autism and its underlying neural substrates. The book's two editors are considered elite pioneers in this area of research. Dr. Rubenstein was recently elected to the highly prestigious Institute of the Medicine, an honor reserved for those most committed to professional achievement and public service.

Nida Research Monograph

Author :
Genre : Drug abuse
File Size : 71. 80 MB
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Understanding Twice Exceptional Learners

Author : C. Matthew Fugate
ISBN : 9781000490220
Genre : Education
File Size : 90. 34 MB
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Understanding Twice-Exceptional Learners offers an in-depth look at the needs and lived experiences of students who are twice-exceptional. This book: Includes detailed examinations of co-occurring disabilities commonly found in twice-exceptional populations. Features studies of ADHD, dyslexia, dyscalculia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), anxiety, OCD, and more. Bridges the divide between research about and practical strategies for teaching gifted students with learning challenges. Is Ideal for university teacher preparation courses and graduate programs. Provides strength-based strategies that focus on students' unique gifts and talents. Each chapter includes a comprehensive literature review, suggested interventions, resources for further exploration, and vignettes that highlight experiences of twice-exceptional students and the behaviors and needs that practitioners might commonly see in the classroom.

The 10 Best Ever Anxiety Management Techniques Understanding How Your Brain Makes You Anxious And What You Can Do To Change It Second

Author : Margaret Wehrenberg
ISBN : 9780393712155
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 46. 67 MB
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A much-anticipated update to the classic personal road map, full of strategies to understand, manage, and conquer your stress. Do you feel a tightness in your chest and a racing heart anytime you have to speak up for yourself, whether in a large group or small? Does the very idea that others could perceive you as looking uncomfortable or frightened make those symptoms even worse? Do you vigilantly avoid potential panic triggers, and always think the worst is bound to happen? If so, you may be one of the 40 million Americans who suffer from anxiety. Symptoms run the gamut from mildly embarrassing but tolerable to persistent and debilitating. While feelings of worry, dread, panic, social unease, and general anxiety are common, their impact is insidious, leaving sufferers feeling worn out and often hopeless. This book is your answer. Drawing on fresh insights into the anatomy of the anxious brain, Dr. Wehrenberg gets to the biologically based heart of the problem and offers readers practical, effective tips to manage their anxiety on a day-to-day basis. From diaphragmatic breathing and self-talk, to mindfulness, muscle relaxation, and "plan to panic" strategies, you can learn to train your brain, conquer your stress and anxiety, and regain control of your life.

Understanding Events

Author : Thomas F. Shipley
ISBN : 9780190293314
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 36. 96 MB
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We effortlessly recognize all sorts of events--from simple events like people walking to complex events like leaves blowing in the wind. We can also remember and describe these events, and in general, react appropriately to them, for example, in avoiding an approaching object. Our phenomenal ease interacting with events belies the complexity of the underlying processes we use to deal with them. Driven by an interest in these complex processes, research on event perception has been growing rapidly. Events are the basis of all experience, so understanding how humans perceive, represent, and act on them will have a significant impact on many areas of psychology. Unfortunately, much of the research on event perception--in visual perception, motor control, linguistics, and computer science--has progressed without much interaction. This volume is the first to bring together computational, neurological, and psychological research on how humans detect, classify, remember, and act on events. The book will provide professional and student researchers with a comprehensive collection of the latest research in these diverse fields.

Motor And Cognitive Functions Of The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Anne-Marie Thierry
ISBN : 364285009X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 58. 12 MB
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The prefrontal cortex is particularly challenging as it has undergone great expansion during phylogenetic development and because it plays a crucial role in regulating most complex behaviors. Progress in research techniques in animals, and in the development of non-invasive brain imaging approaches in humans, have precipitated a resurgence of interest in the prefrontal cortex. To shed light on the rapidly accumulated information on motor and cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex the Fondation IPSEN organized a Symposium (third in the series of the Colloques Medecine et Recherche) held in Paris on November 24, 1992. This volume contains the proceedings of this meeting with interdisciplinary contributions from such fields as neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology, electrophysiology as well as from clinical and behavior studies. The fourth meeting in the series will be held on October 11, 1993, and is to be entitled "Temporal coding: an area of renewed interest in brain function" (Organizing committee: G. Buzsaki, New York; W. Singer, Frankfurt; R. Llinas, New York; A. Berthoz, Paris; Y. Christen, Paris). Paris, France Anne-Marie Thierry September 1993 Yves Christen Contents How to Study Frontal Lobe Functions in Humans B. Dubois, M. Verin, C. Teixeira-Ferreira, A. Sirigu, and B. Pillon . . 1 Distinctive Chemoanatomical and Developmental Features of the Prefrontal Dopaminergic System in Primates as Compared to Rodents B. Berger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Understanding Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author : Michelle R. Haney
ISBN : 9781412982467
Genre : Education
File Size : 83. 68 MB
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As prevalence rates and awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increase, there is a need for all educators to have a basic understanding of the disorder and how to teach affected children. Understanding Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Educators Partnering with Families introduces, in an accessible manner, the significant body of research and theory in the field of autism within the larger context of understanding the unique socio-cultural dimensions of individuals with ASD and their families. Engaging and user-friendly, Michelle Haney’s text provides future educators insight into the complexity and diversity of children with ASD, the wide range of interventions and processes for make decisions about choosing interventions (teaming with parents to provide optimal educational opportunities), and the personal/professional growth that is likely to take place during such a journey.

Eating Disorders Understanding Causes Controversies And Treatment 2 Volumes

Author : Justine J. Reel Ph.D.
ISBN : 9781440853012
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87. 80 MB
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This encyclopedia offers a variety of resources for readers interested in learning more about eating disorders, including hundreds of reference entries, interviews, scholarly debates, and case studies. • Reflects recent changes in approaches to eating disorders brought about by the publication of the latest edition of the DSM • Explores key issues related to eating disorders and models critical thinking and argument construction in the Controversies and Debates section • Offers insights from a variety of perspectives expounded upon in interviews with scholars, eating disorder professionals, patients, and family members • Gives readers a "real world" look at the many ways eating disorders can manifest and progress in the Case Illustrations section

The Self In Understanding And Treating Psychological Disorders

Author : Michael Kyrios
ISBN : 9781107079144
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43. 51 MB
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A unique exploration of how the 'self' influences psychopathology, psychotherapy, emphasizing the need to integrate self-constructs into evidence-based conceptual models.

Understanding Suicide And Its Prevention

Author : Federico Sanchez
ISBN : 9781453517109
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 32. 96 MB
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Finally, a book that explains suicide using the latest research in suicidology. A must-read for mental health professionals and the survivors of suicide who want to understand why suicide happens. The material in this book should be incorporated into the curriculum of psychology and psychiatry because suicide is such a vital topic that is hardly covered in medical schools due to the lack of a coherent theory of the brain in general and suicide in particular. This is an important book for all professionals who deal with mental disorders in general and suicide in particular. It is the author's fifth book where suicide is explained, not as a mysterious process, but as a natural consequence of the reactions of the brain under certain conditions when suffering mental disorders. The author begins with a brief summary of the statistics of the whos, the hows, and the wheres of suicide. This gives us a clear idea of the magnitude of the problem of suicide, of the cost, not only in lives, but of the emotional toll of the survivors, as well as the financial burdens on society as a whole. Then, as an important first step to understanding the medical community's standard approaches to mental disease, he reviews briefly the current psychiatric terminology and the diagnostic tools concerning mental disorders. He presents the most accepted current theories and models of suicide. He explains what a psychiatric emergency is and what to expect if one ever encounters such a situation. And he explains how suicide risk assessment is currently done, along with other important considerations. He proceeds to explain in everyday language, where possible, his theory of how the brain works, beginning with a simple explanation of how neurons communicate with each other. Later he explains how the brain controls the body and how we see with the back of our heads, how memory systems become a logical extension or expansion of our sensory and motor systems. Awareness and attention are introduced, first as an evolutionary tool that aids the senses gather more information from the environment and, ultimately, as tools that aid in thinking, reasoning, and constructing our past, our lives, and our identities. But all this would mean nothing without the introduction of emotions and how the brain constructs contexts. He explains how emotions are an integral part of memories and how these are related to contexts, how, basically, the brain has created a very concise and compact filing memory system. A clear explanation of how emotions are triggered, regulated, and dissipated is next. These lead to a learned discussion of how these various systems can go haywire causing mental disorders. A brief, but perhaps new and revolutionary approach to these mental disorders is presented next, including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Delirium, Dementia, and Other Amnestic Disorders, Manic Depression and Depression, and Schizophrenia. Ultimately, it becomes clear how, under certain conditions, these disorders can lead to suicide. The difference between attempters and completers is also explained. He then presents a suicide autopsy as an exercise to show how varied the opinions of experts in the field of suicidology are and compares it to his own theories and lets the reader decide for himself who is closer to the truth. The fallacy of many expert opinions of where research needs to go is presented. The book gives a few words of advice on various therapies and the rationality of their approaches and cautions against their limitations. The book devotes a chapter to suicide prevention in the military and how these efforts are bound to fail and another chapter on suicide prevention. The author makes important suggestions of how to prevent suicide and lessen suicide rates, particularly among the young. And lastly, a chapter is devoted to the specifics of grief for suicide survivors.

Understanding And Loving Your Child With Adhd

Author : Stephen Arterburn
ISBN : 9781684511532
Genre : Religion
File Size : 38. 63 MB
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When most parenting books were written decades ago, they did not address—nor could they address—all the issues parents would face today in the era of technology and excess. Parents do not need another article that contradicts the last one they read; rather, they need insights, techniques, and strategies to tackle the issues of twenty-first-century parenting. That’s what the Understanding and Loving Your Child series of books will do. Understanding and Loving Your Child with ADHD will guide parents with methods they can use to help children who suffer from ADHD build character and competence rather than conflict, failure, shame, or disconnection.

Advances In Understanding Human Performance

Author : Tadeusz Marek
ISBN : 9781439835029
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 53 MB
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Combining emerging concepts, theories, and applications of human factors knowledge, this volume focuses on discovery and understanding of human performance issues in complex systems, including recent advances in neural basis of human behavior at work (i.e. neuroergonomics), training, and universal design. The book is organized into ten sections that focus on the following subject matters: I: Neuroergonomics: Workload Assessment II: Models and Measurement in Neuroergonomics III: Neuroergonomics and Human Performance IV: Neuroergonomics and Training Issues V: Trainees: Designing for Those in Training VI: Military Human Factors: Designing for Those in the Armed Forces VII: New Programs/New Places: Designing for Those Unfamiliar with Human Factors VIII: Universal Design: Designing to Include Everyone IX: Designing for People with Disabilities X: Children and Elderly: Designing for Those of Different Ages Sections I through IV of this book focus on neuroscience of human performance in complex systems, with emphasis on the assessment and modeling of cognitive workload, fatigue, and training effectiveness. Sections V through X concentrate on applying human factors to special populations, with the caveat that the design information may not generalize to (or be of interest to) other populations. This broadens the conventional definition which limits special populations to those who have limitations in their functional abilities, i.e. those with chronic disabilities due to illness, injury, or aging. Thus, special populations can incorporate certain investigations and designs focused on military, students, or even developing countries and those naïve to the field of human factors, as well as those who are affected by disabilities and aging (both young and old). Many chapters of this book focus on analysis, design, and evaluation of challenges affecting students, trainees, members of the military, persons with disabilities, and universal design. In general, the chapters are organized to move from a more general, to a more specialized application. For example, the subtopics for those with disabilities include designing websites, workstations, housing, entrepreneur training, communication strategies, products, environments, public transportation systems, and communities. This book is of special value to a large variety of professionals, researchers and students in the broad field of human performance who are interested in neuroergonomics, training effectiveness, and universal design and operation of products and processes, as well as management of work systems in contemporary society. We hope this book is informative, but even more - that it is thought provoking. We hope it inspires, leading the reader to contemplate other questions, applications, and potential solutions in creating designs that improve function, efficiency, and ease-of-use for all. Seven other titles in the Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series are: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling Advances in Cross-Cultural Decision Making Advances in Cognitive Ergonomics Advances in Occupational, Social and Organizational Ergonomics Advances in Human Factors, Ergonomics and Safety in Manufacturing and Service Industries Advances in Ergonomics Modeling & Usability Evaluation

Toward Comprehensive Understanding Of The Suicidal Phenomenon

Author : Zoltán - Rihmer
ISBN : 9782889711697
Genre : Medical
File Size : 63. 53 MB
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Understanding Loss

Author : Judith Murray
ISBN : 9781317571247
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58. 90 MB
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Loss and consequent grief permeates nearly every life changing event, from death to health concerns to dislocation to relationship breakdown to betrayal to natural disaster to faith issues. Yet, while we know about particular events of loss independently, we know very little about a psychology of loss that draws many adversities together. This universal experience of loss as a concept in its own right sheds light on so much of the work we do in the care of others. This book develops a new overarching framework to understand loss and grief, taking into account both pathological and wellbeing approaches to the subject. Drawing on international and cross-disciplinary research, Judith Murray highlights nine common themes of loss, helping us to understand how it is experienced. These themes are then used to develop a practice framework for structuring assessment and intervention systematically. Throughout the book, this generic approach is highlighted through discussing its use in different loss events such as bereavement, trauma, chronic illness and with children or older people. Having been used in areas as diverse as child protection, palliative care and refugee care, the framework can be tailored to a range of needs and levels of care. Caring for people experiencing loss is an integral part of the work of helping professions, whether it is explicitly part of their work such as in counselling, or implicit as in social work, nursing, teaching, medicine and community work. This text is an important guide for anyone working in these areas.

Understanding Pastoral Counseling

Author : Elizabeth A. Maynard, PhD
ISBN : 9780826130068
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 51. 49 MB
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What are the roles, functions, and identities of pastoral counselors today? What paradigms shape their understanding of the needs of others? How can pastoral counselors serve the needs of diverse individuals in both religious and secular environments? This foundational text reflects the continued and unfolding work of pastoral counseling in both clinical and traditional ministry settings. It addresses key issues in the history, current practices, and future directions of pastoral counseling and its place among allied helping professions. Written to incorporate current changes in the roles of pastoral counselors and models of training beyond the traditional seminary, the book builds on themes of pastoral counseling as a distinct way of being in the world, understanding client concerns and experiences, and intervening to promote the health and growth of clients. The text provides a foundational overview of the roles and functions of the modern pastoral counselor. It discusses spiritual perspectives on the issues that bring individuals to seek counseling and integrates them with the perspectives of allied mental health professions. The tools and methods pastoral counselors can employ for spiritual assessment are presented, and the book describes common spiritual and theological themes—both implicit and explicit—that arise in pastoral counseling. Included are chapters examining Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Native American, and Buddhist approaches to counseling as well as counseling individuals with diverse sexual identities. The book reflects the increasing need for pastoral counselors to serve effectively in a multicultural society, including service to individuals who are not affiliated with a specific religious denomination. The book also considers the emerging realities of distance counseling and integrated health care systems as current issues in the field. KEY FEATURES: Presents a contemporary approach to how pastoral counselors function as mental health professionals and spiritual leaders Serves as a state-of-the-art foundational text for pastoral counseling education Describes assessments and interventions that are shared with allied mental health professionals and those that are unique to pastoral counseling Provides an ecumenical and interfaith approach for a multicultural society, including individuals with diverse sexual identities Addresses counseling with individuals who do not affiliate with a specific faith tradition Includes Instructor's Guide and online Student Resources to enhance teaching and learning

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