twentieth-century-population-thinking

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Twentieth Century Population Thinking

Author : The Population Knowledge Network
ISBN : 9781317479635
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 41. 40 MB
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This reader on the history of demography and historical perspectives on "population" in the twentieth century features a unique collection of primary sources from around the globe, written by scholars, politicians, journalists, and activists. Many of the sources are available in English for the first time. Background information is provided on each source. Together, the sources mirror the circumstances under which scientific knowledge about "population" was produced, how demography evolved as a discipline, and how demographic developments were interpreted and discussed in different political and cultural settings. Readers thereby gain insight into the historical precedents on debates on race, migration, reproduction, natural resources, development and urbanization, the role of statistics in the making of the nation state, and family structures and gender roles, among others. The reader is designed for undergraduate and graduate students as well as scholars in the fields of demography and population studies as well as to anyone interested in the history of science and knowledge.

Population In The Human Sciences

Author : Philip Kreager
ISBN : 9780191512490
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35. 98 MB
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The Human Sciences address problems in nature and society that often require coordinated approaches of several scientific disciplines and scholarly research, embracing the social and biological sciences, and history. When we wish, for example, to understand how some sub-populations and not others come to be vulnerable, why a disease spreads in one part of a population and not another, or which gene variants are transmitted across generations, then a remarkable range of disciplinary perspectives need to be brought together, from the study of institutional structures, cultural boundaries, and social networks down to the micro-biology of cellular pathways, and gene expression. The need to explain and address differential impacts of pressing contemporary issues like AIDS, ageing, social and economic inequalities, and environmental change, are well-known cases in point. Population concepts, models, and evidence lie at the core of approaches to all of these problems, if only because accurate differentiation and identification of groups, their structures, constituents, and relations between sub-populations, are necessary to specify their nature and extent. The study of population thus draws both on statistical methodologies of demography and population genetics and sustained observation of the ways in which populations and sub-populations are formed, maintained, or broken up in nature, in the laboratory, and in society. In an era in which research needs to operate on multiple levels, population thinking thus provides a common ground for communication and critical thought across disciplines. Population in the Human Sciences addresses the need for review and assessment of the framework of interdisciplinary population studies. Limitations to prevailing postwar paradigms like the Evolutionary Synthesis and Demographic Transition were becoming evident by the 1970s. Subsequent decades have witnessed an immense expansion of population modelling and related empirical inquiry, with new genetic developments that have reshaped evolutionary, population, and developmental biology. The rise of anthropological and historical demography, and social network analysis, are playing major roles in rethinking modern and earlier population history. More recently, the emergence of sub-disciplines like biodemography and evolutionary anthropology, and growing links between evolutionary and developmental biology, indicate a growing convergence of biological and social approaches to population.

International Development

Author : Corinna R. Unger
ISBN : 9781472576316
Genre : History
File Size : 23. 2 MB
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International Development: A Postwar History offers the first concise historical overview of international development policies and practices in the 20th century. Embracing a longue durée perspective, the book describes the emergence of the development field at the intersection of late colonialism, the Second World War, the onset of decolonization, and the Cold War. It discusses the role of international organizations, colonial administrations, national governments, and transnational actors in the making of the field, and it analyzes how the political, intellectual, and economic changes over the course of the postwar period affected the understanding of and expectations toward development. By drawing on examples of development projects in different parts of the world and in different fields, Corinna R. Unger shows how the plurality of development experiences shaped the notion of development as we know it today. This book is ideal for scholars seeking to understand the history of development assistance and to gain new insight into the international history of the 20th century.

Human Heredity In The Twentieth Century

Author : Bernd Gausemeier
ISBN : 9781317319214
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 2 MB
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The essays in this collection examine how human heredity was understood between the end of the First World War and the early 1970s. The contributors explore the interaction of science, medicine and society in determining how heredity was viewed across the world during the politically turbulent years of the twentieth century.

Children By Choice?

Author : Ann-Katrin Gembries
ISBN : 9783110522068
Genre : History
File Size : 65. 16 MB
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During the 20th century, medico-technical advances such as the invention of the latex condom (1930), the arrival of the contraceptive pill on the free market (1960/61) and the birth of the first child conceived by in vitro fertilization (1978) contributed to the fact that in Europe and the USA, the planning, conceiving and making of children was increasingly perceived as a matter of individual and collective decision-making. Especially since mid-century, these societies underwent profound political, economic and cultural evolutions. In the realm of human reproduction the relationship between the possible, the desirable, and the permitted had to be continually renegotiated. This volume examines in nine chapters how thinking, speaking and acting changed with regards to reproduction and family planning throughout the modern and post-modern period. Applying an international comparative perspective, the study specifically focuses on the role of value changes underlying these transformation processes.

Reproduction

Author : Nick Hopwood
ISBN : 9781108626088
Genre : Medical
File Size : 36. 91 MB
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From contraception to cloning and pregnancy to populations, reproduction presents urgent challenges today. This field-defining history synthesizes a vast amount of scholarship to take the long view. Spanning from antiquity to the present day, the book focuses on the Mediterranean, western Europe, North America and their empires. It combines history of science, technology and medicine with social, cultural and demographic accounts. Ranging from the most intimate experiences to planetary policy, it tells new stories and revises received ideas. An international team of scholars asks how modern 'reproduction' - an abstract process of perpetuating living organisms - replaced the old 'generation' - the active making of humans and beasts, plants and even minerals. Striking illustrations invite readers to explore artefacts, from an ancient Egyptian fertility figurine to the announcement of the first test-tube baby. Authoritative and accessible, Reproduction offers students and non-specialists an essential starting point and sets fresh agendas for research.

Alevis In Europe

Author : Tözün Issa
ISBN : 9781317182641
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 41. 28 MB
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The Alevis are a significant minority in Turkey, and now also in the countries of Western Europe. Over the past century, many of them have migrated from rural enclaves on the Anatolian plateau to the great cities of Istanbul and Ankara, and from there to the countries of the European Union. This book asks who are they? How do they construct their identities – now and in the past; in Turkey and in Europe? A range of scholars, writing from sociological, historical, socio-psychological and political perspectives, present analysis and research that shows the Alevi communities grouping and regrouping, defining and redefining – sometimes as an ethnic minority, sometimes as religious groups, sometimes around a political philosophy - contingently responding to circumstances of the Turkish Republic’s political position and to the immigration policies of Western Europe. Contributors consider Alevi roots and cultural practices in their villages of origin; the changes in identity following the migration to the gecekondu shanty towns surrounding the cities of Turkey; the changes consequent on their second diaspora to Germany, the UK, Sweden and other European countries; and the implications of European citizenship for their identity. This collection offers a new and significant contribution to the study of migration and minorities in the wider European context.

Childhood Literature And Science

Author : Jutta Ahlbeck
ISBN : 9781351983013
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44. 61 MB
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How do we understand, imagine and remember childhood? In what ways do cultural representations and scientific discourses meet in their ways of portraying children? Childhood, Literature and Science aims to answer these questions by tracing how images of childhood(s) and children in Western modernity are entangled with notions of innocence and fragility, but also with sin and evilness. Indeed, this interdisciplinary collection investigates how different child figures emerge or disappear in imaginative and social representations, in the memories of adult selves, and in expert knowledge. Questions about childhood in Western modernity, culture and science are also addressed through insightful analysis of a variety of materials from the Enlightenment age to the present day – such as fiction, life narratives, visual images, scientific texts and public writings. Analysing childhood as a discursive construction, Childhood, Literature and Science will appeal to scholars as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students interested in fields such as: Childhood Studies, History, Gender Studies, Cultural Studies, Literature and Sociology of the Family.

Systematics And The Origin Of Species

Author : National Academy of Sciences
ISBN : 9780309165105
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 51 MB
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In December 2004, the National Academy of Sciences sponsored a colloquium on "Systematics and the Origin of Species" to celebrate Ernst Mayr's 100th anniversary and to explore current knowledge concerning the origin of species. In 1942, Ernst Mayr, one of the twentieth century's greatest scientists, published Systematics and the Origin of Species, a seminal book of the modern theory of evolution, where he advanced the significance of population variation in the understanding of evolutionary process and the origin of new species. Mayr formulated the transition from Linnaeus's static species concept to the dynamic species concept of the modern theory of evolution and emphasized the species as a community of populations, the role of reproductive isolation, and the ecological interactions between species. In addition to a preceding essay by Edward O. Wilson, this book includes the 16 papers presented by distinguished evolutionists at the colloquium. The papers are organized into sections covering the origins of species barriers, the processes of species divergence, the nature of species, the meaning of "species," and genomic approaches for understanding diversity and speciation.

Reconsidering Race

Author : Kazuko Suzuki
ISBN : 9780190465285
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 32. 3 MB
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Race is one of the most elusive phenomena of social life. While we generally know it when we see it, it's not an easy concept to define. Social science literature has argued that race is a Western, socio-political concept that emerged with the birth of modern imperialism, whether in thesixteenth century (the Age of Discovery) or the eighteenth century (the Age of Enlightenment). The editors of this book point out that there is a disjuncture between the way race is conceptualized in the social science and medical literature: some of the modern sciences employ racial and ethniccategories, but they do so to analyze, diagnose, and treat particular conditions such as organ transplants for mixed-race children, heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, skin disorders, obesity, and gastrointestinal diseases. As such, race has a physical, as opposed to a purely social, dimension.In order to more fully understand what we mean by "race", social scientists need to engage genetics, medicine, and health. To be sure, the long shadow of eugenics and the Nazi use of scientific racism have cast a pall over the effort to understand this complicated relationship between social scienceand race. But while the contributors of this volume reject pseudoscience and hierarchical ways of looking at race, they make the claim that it is time to reassess the Western-based, "social construction" paradigm. The chapters in this book consider three fundamental tensions in thinking about race:one between theories that see race as fixed or malleable; a second between the idea that race is a universal but modern Western concept and the idea that it has a deeper and more complicated cultural history; and a third between socio-political and biological/bio-medical concepts of race. Arguingthat race is not merely socially constructed, the contributors, including Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Ann Morning, Jennifer Hochschild, Rogers Brubaker, Michael Keevak, Carolyn Rouse, and Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, offer a provocative collection of views on the way that social scientists must reconsider theidea of race in the age of genomics.

Twentieth Century

Author :
ISBN : WISC:89092862093
Genre : Social problems
File Size : 25. 69 MB
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Twentieth Century

Author :
ISBN : BML:37001105134238
Genre :
File Size : 57. 33 MB
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The Nineteenth century and after (London)

The Twentieth Century

Author :
ISBN : PSU:000020226671
Genre :
File Size : 37. 52 MB
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Journal Of Philosophy Of Life Sciences

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015081484027
Genre : Anthropology
File Size : 56. 61 MB
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Darwinism Democracy And Race

Author : John P Jackson
ISBN : 9781351810784
Genre :
File Size : 59. 33 MB
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Darwinism, Democracy, and Race examines the development and defence of an argument that arose at the boundary between anthropology and evolutionary biology in twentieth-century America. In its fully articulated form, this argument simultaneously discredited scientific racism and defended free human agency in Darwinian terms. The volume is timely because it gives readers a key to assessing contemporary debates about the biology of race. By working across disciplinary lines, the book's focal figures--the anthropologist Franz Boas, the cultural anthropologist Alfred Kroeber, the geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, and the physical anthropologist Sherwood Washburn--found increasingly persuasive ways of cutting between genetic determinist and social constructionist views of race by grounding Boas's racially egalitarian, culturally relativistic, and democratically pluralistic ethic in a distinctive version of the genetic theory of natural selection. Collaborators in making and defending this argument included Ashley Montagu, Stephen Jay Gould, and Richard Lewontin. Darwinism, Democracy, and Race will appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and academics interested in subjects including Philosophy, Critical Race Theory, Sociology of Race, History of Biology and Anthropology, and Rhetoric of Science.

British Population In The Twentieth Century

Author : N. L. Tranter
ISBN : 0312129408
Genre : Fertility, Human
File Size : 80. 15 MB
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Even as late as the end of the nineteenth century the demography of Britain still retained many of the features characteristic of earlier times. Rates of population growth remained relatively high. A substantial proportion of the country's natural excess of births over deaths emigrated overseas. Average expectations of life, levels of fertility and patterns of nuptiality differed relatively little from those typical of the early years of the century. Changes in the internal geography of residence continued to favour northern rather than southern regions, urban rather than rural locations and core rather than more peripheral parts of the country. At various stages in the course of the last hundred years or so, the character of Britain's demography has altered dramatically. The transformation towards a modern demographic regime may have begun in the late nineteenth century. But it has been in the twentieth century, and particularly since the First World War, that the bulk of this transformation has taken place. Average life expectancies at birth have soared from around fifty years to well over seventy years. Rates of marital fertility have fallen to levels no longer sufficient to ensure replacement and, in the most recent decades, have been accompanied by unprecedented increases in the extent of divorce, extramarital cohabitation and illegitimacy. The geography of population location has altered in favour of southern rather than northern areas and small urban and rural communities at the expense of large urban centres. Most strikingly of all, under the impact of declining fertility, rates of population growth slumped to levels which, by the 1970s and 1980s, hovered around zero. In thisstudy an attempt is made to explain why these changes have occurred and why the demography of Britain in the 1990s differs so markedly from that of the 1890s.

American Indian Population Recovery In The Twentieth Century

Author : Nancy Shoemaker
ISBN : 082631919X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 73. 26 MB
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Studies the reasons why the Native American population has returned to 1492 levels since 1900, and compares the social and cultural patterns in five tribes in different regions--the Senecas, the Cherokees, the Ojibways, the Yakamas, and the Navajos

Primate Life History And Evolution

Author : C. Jean De Rousseau
ISBN : STANFORD:36105034777313
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 6 MB
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These proceedings of a symposium held in Maja, Mexico, in October 1987 offer multidisciplinary investigations of ontogency's role in primate evolution and the place of life history in evolutionary studies. This work presents a comprehensive view of life history's value in facilitating primate evolution research by giving equal emphasis to the two components of life history: the processes in individual organisms, and the structural consequences of those processes in higher levels of organization.

Social Change In The Twentieth Century

Author : Daniel Chirot
ISBN : UOM:39015016131396
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 48. 17 MB
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Zion In The Valley The Twentieth Century

Author : Walter Ehrlich
ISBN : IND:30000085840522
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 46. 89 MB
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"St. Louis contains one of the largest Jewish communities in the interior of the United States. Yet, despite the important contributions of St. Louis Jews to the city's cultural and economic growth and to national and international Jewry, no history of their accomplishments has heretofore been written. In this masterful book, Walter Ehrlich shows how the St. Louis Jewish community grew in two separate yet intricately related milieux. One was the internal socioreligious community, which centered on relations of Jews with fellow Jews. The other was the broader secular environment, in which Jews individually and collectively interacted with the non-Jewish population, assuming significant roles in the political, economic, social, and religious developments of one of the country's most important urban centers. Employing many previously unused primary materials--especially congregational archives, organizational and business records, contemporary newspapers, and vivid personal memoirs--Ehrlich presents a fascinating description of how individuals and groups contributed to the growth and development of a major American urban area. He clarifies significant aspects of social and economic structure, mobility, and philanthropy within the Jewish community and integrates them within the broader framework of American society. In the process, Ehrlich provides a unique perspective on St. Louis history, as well as on American urban, ethnic, and immigration history. Zion in the Valley is an invaluable contribution to the field of Jewish studies. It will appeal to scholars and students of Jewish, urban, and ethnic history, as well as to members of the broader St. Louis community."--Publishers website.

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