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The Language Of Thought

Author : Jerry A. Fodor
ISBN : 0674510305
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 68. 22 MB
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In a compelling defense of the speculative approach to the philosophy of mind, Jerry Fodor argues that, while our best current theories of cognitive psychology view many higher processes as computational, computation itself presupposes an internal medium of representation. Fodor's prime concerns are to buttress the notion of internal representation from a philosophical viewpoint, and to determine those characteristics of this conceptual construct using the empirical data available from linguistics and cognitive psychology.

Lot 2

Author : Jerry A. Fodor
ISBN : 9780191563478
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 72. 11 MB
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Jerry Fodor presents a new development of his famous Language of Thought hypothesis, which has since the 1970s been at the centre of interdisciplinary debate about how the mind works. Fodor defends and extends the groundbreaking idea that thinking is couched in a symbolic system realized in the brain. This idea is central to the representational theory of mind which Fodor has established as a key reference point in modern philosophy, psychology, and cognitive science. The foundation stone of our present cognitive science is Turing's suggestion that cognitive processes are not associations but computations; and computation requires a language of thought. So the latest on the Language of Thought hypothesis, from its progenitor, promises to be a landmark in the study of the mind. LOT 2 offers a more cogent presentation and a fuller explication of Fodor's distinctive account of the mind, with various intriguing new features. The central role of compositionality in the representational theory of mind is revealed: most of what we know about concepts follows from the compositionality of thoughts. Fodor shows the necessity of a referentialist account of the content of intentional states, and of an atomistic account of the individuation of concepts. Not least among the new developments is Fodor's identification and persecution of pragmatism as the leading source of error in the study of the mind today. LOT 2 sees Fodor advance undaunted towards the ultimate goal of a theory of the cognitive mind, and in particular a theory of the intentionality of cognition. No one who works on the mind can ignore Fodor's views, expressed in the coruscating and provocative style which has delighted and disconcerted countless readers over the years.

The Language Of Thought

Author : Susan Schneider
ISBN : 9780262295079
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 83. 23 MB
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A philosophical refashioning of the Language of Thought approach and the related computational theory of mind. The language of thought (LOT) approach to the nature of mind has been highly influential in cognitive science and the philosophy of mind; and yet, as Susan Schneider argues, its philosophical foundations are weak. In this philosophical refashioning of LOT and the related computational theory of mind (CTM), Schneider offers a different framework than has been developed by LOT and CTM's main architect, Jerry Fodor: one that seeks integration with neuroscience, repudiates Fodor's pessimism about the capacity of cognitive science to explain cognition, embraces pragmatism, and advances a different approach to the nature of concepts, mental symbols, and modes of presentation. According to the LOT approach, conceptual thought is determined by the manipulation of mental symbols according to algorithms. Schneider tackles three key problems that have plagued the LOT approach for decades: the computational nature of the central system (the system responsible for higher cognitive function); the nature of symbols; and Frege cases. To address these problems,] Schneider develops a computational theory that is based on the Global Workspace approach; develops a theory of symbols, "the algorithmic view"; and brings her theory of symbols to bear on LOT's account of the causation of thought and behavior. In the course of solving these problems, Schneider shows that LOT must make peace with both computationalism and pragmatism; indeed, the new conception of symbols renders LOT a pragmatist theory. And LOT must turn its focus to cognitive and computational neuroscience for its naturalism to succeed.

Language And Thought

Author : Peter Carruthers
ISBN : 0521637589
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 47. 51 MB
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This distinguished collection of essays explores the place of natural language in human cognition.

Propositional Attitudes And The Language Of Thought

Author : Clark C. Shores
ISBN : OCLC:12599736
Genre : Cognition
File Size : 90. 32 MB
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The Language Of Thought In Late Medieval Philosophy

Author : Jenny Pelletier
ISBN : 9783319666341
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61. 72 MB
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This edited volume presents new lines of research dealing with the language of thought and its philosophical implications in the time of Ockham. It features more than 20 essays that also serve as a tribute to the ground-breaking work of a leading expert in late medieval philosophy: Claude Panaccio. Coverage addresses topics in the philosophy of mind and cognition (externalism, mental causation, resemblance, habits, sensory awareness, the psychology, illusion, representationalism), concepts (universal, transcendental, identity, syncategorematic), logic and language (definitions, syllogisms, modality, supposition, obligationes, etc.), action theory (belief, will, action), and more. A distinctive feature of this work is that it brings together contributions in both French and English, the two major research languages today on the main theme in question. It unites the most renowned specialists in the field as well as many of Claude Panaccio’s former students who have engaged with his work over the years. In furthering this dialogue, the essays render key topics in fourteenth-century thought accessible to the contemporary philosophical community without being anachronistic or insensitive to the particularities of the medieval context. As a result, this book will appeal to a general population of philosophers and historians of philosophy with an interest in logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and metaphysics.

A Critique Of The Semantic Construal Of The Language Of Thought

Author : Gary Emmerson Po Castro
ISBN : OCLC:1184173073
Genre : Language and languages
File Size : 83. 18 MB
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The Language Of Thought

Author : Daniel West
ISBN : 9781418424282
Genre : Juvenile Fiction
File Size : 42. 67 MB
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Language In Mind

Author : Dedre Gentner
ISBN : 0262571633
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26. 5 MB
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Contemporary investigations of the Whorfian idea that language influences how we perceive and understand the world.

Objectivity And The Language Dependence Of Thought

Author : Christian Barth
ISBN : 9781317796251
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 46. 80 MB
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Does thought depend on language? Primarily as a consequence of the cognitive turn in empirical disciplines like psychology and ethology, many current empirical researchers and empirically minded philosophers tend to answer this question in the negative. This book rejects this mainstream view and develops a philosophical argument in favor of a universal dependence of language on thought. In doing so, it comprises insights of two primary representatives of 20th century and contemporary philosophy, namely Donald Davidson and Robert Brandom. Barth offers an introduction to the debate concerning the language-dependence of thought and lays the methodological foundation for the subsequent argument in favor of a universal dependence of thought on language, presenting an account and defense of the transcendental method in reference to the writings of Peter F. Strawson. He then offers a transcendental argument in favor of a universal language-dependence of thought, beginning with a reevaluation of a basic idea for an argument originally presented by Donald Davidson. Later, two main objections to the conclusion of this transcendental argument are addressed and rejected using Robert Brandom’s inferentialist and normativist account of thought and language. In the course of doing so, the recent debate on Brandom’s work is addressed extensively, and main objections to Brandom’s work are presented and answered.

Understanding Language Acquisition

Author : Christina E. Erneling
ISBN : 0791414612
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 88. 76 MB
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How is language acquisition possible? How is it that humans, within a few years of birth, can speak and understand language, transcending both its limited experience and biological limitations? In this challenge to the narrow confines of psychology and philosophy, Christina Erneling argues that language acquisition results from the interaction between linguistic creativity inherent in language and a biological and social framework of learning. Erneling explains and critically analyzes the idea that language acquisition requires a meaningful "language of thought," contrasting this with Wittgenstein's ideas on language and learning. Erneling shows that the assumptions in J. Fodor's development of Chomky's ideas into a theory of "language of thought" have significantly influenced developmental theories, yet fail to resolve the conflict between linguistic creativity and the necessity of a framework for learning. She argues that the later Wittgenstein was more concerned with the conditions of learning than is generally appreciated and shows how his remarks can be developed into an alternative approach to language learning. Understanding Language Acquisition has profound implications for evaluating hidden metatheoretical assumptions, as well as for empirical research and methods for teaching language and treating language disorders.

The Language And Thought Of The Child

Author : Jean Piaget
ISBN : 0415267501
Genre : Psychology
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When first published in 1923, this classic work took the psychological world by storm. Piaget's views expressed in this book, have continued to influence the world of developmental psychology to this day.

Using The Language Of Thought

Author : Eyal Dechter
ISBN : OCLC:1086609172
Genre :
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In this thesis, I develop and explore two novel models of how humans might be able to acquire high-level conceputal knowledge by performing probabilistic inference over a language of thought (Fodor 1975) - a space of symbolic and compositional mental representations sufficiently expressive to capture the meanings of human thoughts and utterances. These models and their associated learning algorithms are motivated by an attempt to provide an understanding of the algorithmic principles that might underlie a child's ability to search the haystack of sentences in her language of thought to find the needle that corresponds to any specific concept. The first model takes advantage of the compositionality inherent to LOT representations, framing concept acquisition as program induction in a functional programming language; the Exploration- Compression algorithm this model motivates iteratively builds a library of useful program fragments that, when composed, restructures the search space, making more useful programs shorter and easier to find. The second model, the Infinite Knowledge Base Model (IKM), frames concept learning as probabilistic inference over the space of relational knowledge bases; the algorithm I develop for learning in this model frames this inference problem as a state-space search over abductive proofs of the learner's observed data. This framing allows us to take advantage of powerful techniques from the heuristic search and classical planning literature to guide the learner. In the final part of this thesis, I explore the behavior of the IKM on several case studies of intuitive theories from the concept learning literature, and I discuss evidence for and against it with respect to other approaches to LOT models.

Languages Of Thought

Author : Bette G. Hirsch
ISBN : STANFORD:36105030934348
Genre : Language and languages
File Size : 47. 1 MB
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This book is one in a series of publications intended to help improve secondary instruction by addressing a central educational issue: teaching children how to think. This volume focuses specifically on how students can be encouraged and helped to think critically from the outset of learning to read in a foreign language. It draws on both recent cognitive research and examples of actual classroom practice to demonstrate how thinking is integral to successful learning even in the most basic and commonplace classroom situations. The first chapter describes one approach to teaching the days of the week in a Hebrew class. The second recommends taking advantage of two resources students bring to the learning of English as a Second Language: their first language and knowledge of the world. Chapter 3 explores connections between reading, thinking, and second language learning. Techniques for teaching thoughtful second language reading are discussed in chapter 4, and strategies for getting more from the printed text are examined in chpater 5. The sixth chapter addresses the assessment of reading comprehension. A 32-item bibliography is included. (MSE)

Thought Based Linguistics

Author : Wallace Chafe
ISBN : 9781108421171
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 49. 2 MB
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Argues for the central role of thoughts in the design of language.

Thought A Very Short Introduction

Author : Tim Bayne
ISBN : 9780191642531
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 53. 56 MB
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There is no denying that thinking comes naturally to human beings. But what are thoughts? How is thought realized in the brain? Does thinking occur in public or is it a purely private affair? Do young children and non-human animals think? Is human thought the same everywhere, or are there culturally specific modes of thought? What is the relationship between thought and language? What kind of responsibility do we have for our thoughts? In this compelling Very Short Introduction, Tim Bayne looks at the nature of thought. Beginning with questions about what thought is and what distinguishes it from other kinds of mental states, he goes on to examine various interpretations of thought from philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology. By exploring the logical structures of thought and the relationship between thought and other mental phenomena, as well as the mechanisms that make thought possible and the cultural variations that may exist in our thought processes, Bayne looks at what we know - and don't know - about our great capacity for thought. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Geography Of Thought

Author : Richard Nisbett
ISBN : 9781439106679
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 67. 77 MB
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A “landmark book” (Robert J. Sternberg, president of the American Psychological Association) by one of the world's preeminent psychologists that proves human behavior is not “hard-wired” but a function of culture. Everyone knows that while different cultures think about the world differently, they use the same equipment for doing their thinking. But what if everyone is wrong? The Geography of Thought documents Richard Nisbett's groundbreaking international research in cultural psychology and shows that people actually think about—and even see—the world differently because of differing ecologies, social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China. As a result, East Asian thought is “holistic”—drawn to the perceptual field as a whole and to relations among objects and events within that field. By contrast, Westerners focus on salient objects or people, use attributes to assign them to categories, and apply rules of formal logic to understand their behavior. From feng shui to metaphysics, from comparative linguistics to economic history, a gulf separates the children of Aristotle from the descendants of Confucius. At a moment in history when the need for cross-cultural understanding and collaboration have never been more important, The Geography of Thought offers both a map to that gulf and a blueprint for a bridge that will span it.

Algebra

Author : John Tabak
ISBN : 0816079447
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45. 1 MB
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Algebra, Revised Edition describes the history of both strands of algebraic thought. This updated resource describes some of the earliest progress in algebra as well as some of the mathematicians in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Greece who contributed to this early period. New material has been added to the chapter on "modern" algebra, a type of mathematical research that continues to occupy the attention of many mathematicians today. --from publisher description.

The Language Of Stories

Author : Barbara Dancygier
ISBN : 9781139499231
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 71. 57 MB
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How do we read stories? How do they engage our minds and create meaning? Are they a mental construct, a linguistic one or a cultural one? What is the difference between real stories and fictional ones? This book addresses such questions by describing the conceptual and linguistic underpinnings of narrative interpretation. Barbara Dancygier discusses literary texts as linguistic artifacts, describing the processes which drive the emergence of literary meaning. If a text means something to someone, she argues, there have to be linguistic phenomena that make it possible. Drawing on blending theory and construction grammar, the book focuses its linguistic lens on the concepts of the narrator and the story, and defines narrative viewpoint in a new way. The examples come from a wide spectrum of texts, primarily novels and drama, by authors such as William Shakespeare, Margaret Atwood, Philip Roth, Dave Eggers, Jan Potocki and Mikhail Bulgakov.

The Cambridge Handbook Of Thinking And Reasoning

Author : Keith J. Holyoak
ISBN : 0521824176
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 67. 37 MB
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The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is the first comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning. Written by the foremost experts from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, individual chapters summarize basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the directions in which research is currently heading. The volume also includes work related to developmental, social and clinical psychology, philosophy, economics, artificial intelligence, linguistics, education, law, and medicine. Scholars and students in all these fields and others will find this to be a valuable collection.

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