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The Democratization Of Invention

Author : B. Zorina Khan
ISBN : 052181135X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77. 95 MB
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An examination of the evolution of American intellectual property rights during the 'long nineteenth century'.

The Democratization Of Invention During Early Industrialization

Author : Kenneth Lee Sokoloff
ISBN : STANFORD:36105034353024
Genre : Estimation theory
File Size : 43. 64 MB
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Abstract: We employ the 1860 Census of Manufactures to study rural antebellum manufacturing in the South and Midwest, and find that manufacturing output per capita was similar across regions in counties specialized in the same agricultural products. The southern deficit in manufactures per capita appears to have been largely attributable to the very low levels of output in counties specialized in cotton production. This implies that it was the South's capabilities for the highly profitable cotton production, not the existence of slavery per se, that was responsible for the region's limited industrial development -- at least in rural areas. The other major finding is that in both the South and the Midwest measured total factor productivity was significantly lower in counties specialized in wheat (the most seasonal of agricultural products as regards labor requirements). This is consistent with suggestions that agricultural districts where the predominant crops were highly seasonal in their requirements for labor were well suited to support manufacturing enterprise during the offpeak periods.

Inventing Ideas

Author : B. Zorina Khan
ISBN : 9780190936075
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 50. 69 MB
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"This books shows how and why the ideas of creative individuals promote progress. The insights are based on original archival research regarding over one hundred thousand inventors, patented inventions, and innovation prizes in Europe and the United States during industrialization. This systematic empirical analysis across time and place and institutions provides an extensive microfoundation for understanding technological change and long-run macroeconomic growth. British and French policies favoured "administered innovation systems," in which elites, administrators or panels made key economic decisions about inducement prizes, rewards and the allocation of resources. European institutions generated returns that were misaligned with economic value and productivity, and perpetuated socioeconomic inequality. Europe fell behind when the negative consequences of such top-down administered systems accumulated and reduced comparative advantage. The modern knowledge economy emerged when, for the first time in world history, an intellectual property clause was included in a national Constitution, in the United States. This strong endorsement for open-access property rights and unfettered markets in ideas reflected a revolution in thinking about the sources of creativity and technical progress. U.S. global industrial ascendancy was a direct outcome of its decentralized market-oriented institutions, which fostered diversity in ideas and innovations, the diffusion of information and disruptive technologies, and sustained endogenous growth"--

Beyond Bakelite

Author : Joris Mercelis
ISBN : 9780262538695
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 10 MB
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The changing relationships between science and industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, illustrated by the career of the “father of plastics.” The Belgian-born American chemist, inventor, and entrepreneur Leo Baekeland (1863–1944) is best known for his invention of the first synthetic plastic—his near-namesake Bakelite—which had applications ranging from electrical insulators to Art Deco jewelry. Toward the end of his career, Baekeland was called the “father of plastics”—given credit for the establishment of a sector to which many other researchers, inventors, and firms inside and outside the United States had also made significant contributions. In Beyond Bakelite, Joris Mercelis examines Baekeland's career, using it as a lens through which to view the changing relationships between science and industry on both sides of the Atlantic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He gives special attention to the intellectual property strategies and scientific entrepreneurship of the period, making clear their relevance to contemporary concerns. Mercelis describes the growth of what he terms the “science-industry nexus” and the developing interdependence of science and industry. After examining Baekeland's emergence as a pragmatic innovator and leader in scientific circles, Mercelis analyzes Baekeland's international and domestic IP strategies and his efforts to reform the US patent system; his dual roles as scientist and industrialist; the importance of theoretical knowledge to the science-industry nexus; and the American Bakelite companies' research and development practices, technically oriented sales approach, and remuneration schemes. Mercelis argues that the expansion and transformation of the science-industry nexus shaped the careers and legacies of Baekeland and many of his contemporaries.

Manufacturing Advantage

Author : Lindsay Schakenbach Regele
ISBN : 9781421425252
Genre : History
File Size : 23. 94 MB
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Ultimately, the book reveals the complex link between government intervention and private initiative in a country struggling to create a political economy that balanced military competence with commercial needs.

European Intellectual Property Law

Author : Justine Pila
ISBN : 9780198831280
Genre : Law
File Size : 26. 52 MB
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European Intellectual Property Law offers a full account of the main areas of substantive European IP law and a discussion of their wider context and effect. The amount and reach of European law, and decision-making in the field of intellectual property has grown exponentially since the 1960s, making it increasingly difficult to treat European law as an adjunct to domestic intellectual property regimes. European Intellectual Property Law responds to this reality by presenting a clear and detailed account of each of the main areas of substantive EU intellectual property law, situated in the context of both the EU legal system and international IP law, including EU constitutional law, the law of the European Patent Convention 1973/2000, and private international law. It draws selectively on examples from domestic IP regimes to illustrate substantive differences between those regimes and to demonstrate the impact of European law, and decision-making on EU Member States. This unique, thoroughly modern approach goes beyond a discussion of the provisions of European legal instruments to consider their wider context and effect. European Intellectual Property Law is the ideal guide for any student wishing to gain a full and critical understanding of the substantive European law of intellectual property.

The Invention Of The Restaurant Paris And Modern Gastronomic Culture With A New Preface

Author : Rebecca L. Spang
ISBN : 9780674241770
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 10 MB
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Winner of the Louis Gottschalk Prize Winner of the Thomas J. Wilson Memorial Prize "Witty and full of fascinating details." --Los Angeles Times Why are there restaurants? Why would anybody consider eating alongside perfect strangers in a loud and crowded room to be an enjoyable pastime? To find the answer, Rebecca Spang takes us back to France in the eighteenth century, when a restaurant was not a place to eat but a quasi-medicinal bouillon not unlike the bone broths of today. This is a book about the French revolution in taste--about how Parisians invented the modern culture of food, changing the social life of the world in the process. We see how over the course of the Revolution, restaurants that had begun as purveyors of health food became symbols of aristocratic greed. In the early nineteenth century, the new genre of gastronomic literature worked within the strictures of the Napoleonic state to transform restaurants yet again, this time conferring star status upon oysters and champagne. "An ambitious, thought-changing book...Rich in weird data, unsung heroes, and bizarre true stories." --Adam Gopnik, New Yorker "[A] pleasingly spiced history of the restaurant." --New York Times "A lively, engrossing, authoritative account of how the restaurant as we know it developed...Spang is...as generous in her helpings of historical detail as any glutton could wish." --The Times

The Face Of Invention

Author : Gary Bryan Magee
ISBN : IND:30000056903028
Genre : Patents
File Size : 72. 48 MB
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Confederate Invention

Author : H. Jackson Knight
ISBN : UIUC:30112096720591
Genre : History
File Size : 49. 24 MB
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The formation of the Confederate States of America involved more than an attempt to create a new, sovereign nation -- it inspired a flurry of creativity and entrepreneurialism in the South that fiercely matched Union ingenuity. H. Jackson Knight's Confederate Invention brings to light the forgotten history of the Confederacy's industrious inventors and its active patent office. Despite the destruction wrought by the Civil War, evidence of Confederate inventions exists in the registry of the Confederate States Patent Office. Hundreds of southerners submitted applications to the agency to secure patents on their intellectual property, which ranged from a "machine for operating submarine batteries," to a "steam plough," to a "combined knapsack and tent," to an "instrument for sighting cannon." The Confederacy's most successful inventors included entrepreneurs, educators, and military men who sought to develop new weapons, weapon improvements, or other inventions that could benefit the Confederate cause as well as their own lives. Each creation belied the conception of a technologically backward South, incapable of matching the creativity and output of northern counterparts. Knight's work provides a groundbreaking study that includes neglected and largely forgotten patents as well as an array of other primary sources. Details on the patent office's origins, inner workings, and demise, and accounts of southern inventors who obtained patents before, during, and after the war reveal a captivating history recovered from obscurity. A novel creation in its own right, Confederate Invention presents the remarkable story behind the South's long-forgotten Civil War inventors and offers a comprehensive account of Confederate patents.

American Economic History

Author : Jonathan R. T. Hughes
ISBN : NWU:35556040182875
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 35. 64 MB
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America's present economy, understood through its past. Rich in both quantitative techniques and economic theory, American Economic History demonstrates how an understanding of our past can illuminate economic issues that face society today and in the future. In simple, elegant language, this text walks readers through four centuries of political, social, and economic history, focusing on laws and institutions and emphasizing current economic topics. The eighth edition has been updated and revised, and includes expanded discussions on population, health, and labor; education; the automobile industry; income and taxes; social security; unemployment; regulation and the financial industry; and the history of economic recessions.

Nber Reporter

Author : National Bureau of Economic Research
ISBN : CORNELL:31924092666324
Genre : Economic history
File Size : 67. 25 MB
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Technology And Engineering

Author : Michel Lette
ISBN : STANFORD:36105112786186
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 31 MB
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History Of Technology

Author : Alfred Rupert Hall
ISBN : UOM:39015058307367
Genre : Technology
File Size : 57. 47 MB
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Technological Revolutions In Europe

Author : Maxine Berg
ISBN : UOM:39015045614750
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72. 36 MB
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Contributors argue that culture, institutions, and learning either made the way for, or blocked technological and industrial transformation. Their essays include broad comparative frameworks between Europe and Asia, and Europe and America, and examine the specific experiences of Britain, France, Holland, Germany, and Scandinavia. Themes addressed include cultures of invention and the learning economy, technological inertia and path dependence, patents and product innovation, and technology, institutions, and boundaries. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Patent Statistics As Economic Indicators

Author : Zvi Griliches
ISBN : PSU:000016359642
Genre : Economic indicators
File Size : 76. 16 MB
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Abstract: and reservations, patent data remain a unique resource for the study of.

American Book Publishing Record

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015066043251
Genre : American literature
File Size : 28. 8 MB
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Suiting Everyone The Democratization Of Clothing In America

Author : Claudia Brush Kidwell
ISBN : WISC:89031352453
Genre : Clothing and dress
File Size : 36. 64 MB
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Language National Unity The Democratization Process

Author : Kayode Omole
ISBN : STANFORD:36105112798025
Genre : Democratization
File Size : 40. 57 MB
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Loyola Of Los Angeles Law Review

Author :
ISBN : UCAL:B5103246
Genre :
File Size : 90. 21 MB
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Wipo Magazine

Author :
ISBN : UCBK:C093989196
Genre : Intellectual property (International law)
File Size : 86. 68 MB
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