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When Victims Become Killers

Author : Mahmood Mamdani
ISBN : 9780691192345
Genre : History
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An incisive look at the causes and consequences of the Rwandan genocide "When we captured Kigali, we thought we would face criminals in the state; instead, we faced a criminal population." So a political commissar in the Rwanda Patriotic Front reflected after the 1994 massacre of as many as one million Tutsis in Rwanda. Underlying his statement was the realization that, though ordered by a minority of state functionaries, the slaughter was performed by hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens, including judges, doctors, priests, and friends. Rejecting easy explanations of the Rwandan genocide as a mysterious evil force that was bizarrely unleashed, When Victims Become Killers situates the tragedy in its proper context. Mahmood Mamdani coaxes to the surface the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutus to turn so brutally on their neighbors. In so doing, Mamdani usefully broadens understandings of citizenship and political identity in postcolonial Africa and provides a direction for preventing similar future tragedies.

The Cohesion Of Oppression

Author : Catharine Newbury
ISBN : WISC:89099030751
Genre : Kinyaga (Rwanda)
File Size : 31. 84 MB
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The Cohesion Of Oppression

Author : Catharine Newbury
ISBN : 0231062575
Genre : History
File Size : 22. 46 MB
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Revolutions are often seen in terms of a spontaneous burst of intense political activity; less attention usually is given to the structures, processes, and perceptions that make such activity possible. This innovative book examines such long-term transformations as they relate to the revolution in the Central African nation of Rwanda, which culminated in its independence in July 1962. While much of the previous work on Rwanda has focused on the royal court and central state institutions, The Cohesion of Oppression instead focuses on politics outside the central heartland. Adopting a "view from below," it explores the interaction of central and local power bases and delineates the transformations introduced into the system by German and Belgian colonial policies that consciously sought to bolster one ethnic group as agents of colonial administration. In the three years before independence, violent conflict in Rwanda resulted in the abolition of the monarchy, the expulsion of the ruling Tuutsi ethnic group from power, and the installation of rival Hutu authorities to take control of a presidential regime with an elected Assembly. While basic Rwandan cultural norms persisted during and after the revolution, significant alterations had taken place in the locus of political power and social categories that had access to high office. This book considers both the internal and the non-Rwandan influences that substantially affected these alterations but concentrates on the former, since such an approach has in general been more neglected.

The Cohesion Of Oppression

Author : Catharine Newbury
ISBN : WISC:89099030777
Genre : Kinyaga (Rwanda)
File Size : 79. 95 MB
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A People Betrayed

Author : Linda Melvern
ISBN : 9781786995476
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 9 MB
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Events in Rwanda in 1994 mark a landmark in the history of modern genocide. Up to one million people were killed in a planned public and political campaign. In the face of indisputable evidence, the UN Security Council failed miserably in its response. In this classic of investigative journalism, Linda Melvern tells the compelling story of what really happened, revealing both the scale, speed and intensity of the unfolding genocide, as well as exposing the governments and individuals who could have prevented what was happening, if they had chosen to act. The book also tells the unrecognised heroism of those who stayed on during the genocide — from volunteer peacekeepers to courageous NGO workers. Twenty-five years on from one of the darkest episodes in modern history, A People Betrayed is a shocking indictment of how Rwanda was ignored then and how today it is remembered in the West.

After Independence

Author : Lowell W. Barrington
ISBN : 9780472025084
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 70. 66 MB
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The majority of the existing work on nationalism has centered on its role in the creation of new states. After Independence breaks new ground by examining the changes to nationalism after independence in seven new states. This innovative volume challenges scholars and specialists to rethink conventional views of ethnic and civic nationalism and the division between primordial and constructivist understandings of national identity. "Where do nationalists go once they get what they want? We know rather little about how nationalist movements transform themselves into the governments of new states, or how they can become opponents of new regimes that, in their view, have not taken the self-determination drive far enough. This stellar collection contributes not only to comparative theorizing on nationalist movements, but also deepens our understanding of the contentious politics of nationalism's ultimate product--new countries." --Charles King, Chair of the Faculty and Ion Ratiu Associate Professor, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service "This well-integrated volume analyzes two important variants of nationalism-postcolonial and postcommunist-in a sober, lucid way and will benefit students and scholars alike." --Zvi Gitelman, University of Michigan Lowell W. Barrington is Associate Professor of Political Science, Marquette University.

Communication And Conflict Transformation Through Local Regional And Global Engagement

Author : Peter M. Kellett
ISBN : 9781498514996
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 85. 54 MB
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This book brings together leading edge scholarship and emerging approaches to conflict transformation from a communication perspective. It illustrates the centrality of communication in analyzing, understanding, and creating transformation in community, environmental, regional, and global conflicts.

The Cohesion Of Oppression

Author : M. Catharine Atterbury Newbury
ISBN : OCLC:695278144
Genre :
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Ethnicity And Sociopolitical Change In Africa And Other Developing Countries

Author : Santosh C. Saha
ISBN : 9781461633402
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 17 MB
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This edited book on constructive ethnicity argues that the modernizing state system in developing countries unduly denies a legitimate place to the linguistic and ethnic groups who, despite habitual attachment to ethnic groups, might meaningfully help the slow process of state building. Here ethnicity is characterized as positive, and as such, moral and pragmatic. Despite ethnicity's natural inclination to polarization, a national community can be reconstructed, as is exemplified by recent events in Rwanda, Cyprus, India, Palestine, and China.

Anti Refugee Violence And African Politics

Author : Ato Kwamena Onoma
ISBN : 9781107036697
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 70. 29 MB
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Using comparative cases from Guinea, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, this study explains why some refugee-hosting communities launch large-scale attacks on civilian refugees while others refrain from such attacks even when encouraged to do so by state officials. Ato Kwamena Onoma argues that these attacks happen where governments instigate them because of links between a few refugees and major opposition groups in the host country. There is an increasing tendency for scholars to focus on militarized refugees and look at refugees as propagators, instead of victims, of violence. Onoma reorients the study of refugees back to a focus on the disempowered civilian refugees that constitute the majority of refugees even in cases of severe refugee militarization, and offers suggestions for broader understanding of and policy options for refugee politics and violence.

A World Divided

Author : Eric D. Weitz
ISBN : 9780691145440
Genre : History
File Size : 46. 68 MB
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Through vivid histories drawn from virtually every continent, Weitz describes how, since the 18th century, nationalists have struggled to establish their own states that grant human rights to some people. At the same time, they have excluded others through forced assimilation, ethnic cleansing, or even genocide.

The Cohesion Of Oppression

Author : Catherine Atterbury Newbury
ISBN : OCLC:695278144
Genre :
File Size : 60. 69 MB
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Missionaries And The Colonial State

Author : David Whitehouse
ISBN : 9781000637960
Genre : History
File Size : 71. 76 MB
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Catholic and Protestant missionaries followed their own, competing agendas rather than those of the colonial state. This volume unravels these agendas and challenges received wisdom on the histories of Rwanda and Burundi, as well as the colonial relationship between state and mission. The archives of the White Fathers Catholic missionary order in Rome and Paris are read alongside primary sources produced by the British Protestant Church Missionary Society to analyse their impact between 1900 and 1972 in Rwanda and Burundi. The colonial state was weaker than often assumed, and permeable by external radical influences. Denominational competition between Catholic and Protestant missionaries was a key motor of this radicalism. The colonial state in both kingdoms was a weak, reactive agent rather than a structuring form of power. This volume shows that missionaries were more committed and influential actors, but their inability to manage the mass demand for the education that they sought and delivered finally undermined the achievement of their aims. Missionaries and the Colonial State is a resource for historians of Christianity, Belgian Africa specialists, and scholars of colonialism.

Reimagining Global Health

Author : Paul Farmer
ISBN : 9780520954632
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 75 MB
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Bringing together the experience, perspective and expertise of Paul Farmer, Jim Yong Kim, and Arthur Kleinman, Reimagining Global Health provides an original, compelling introduction to the field of global health. Drawn from a Harvard course developed by their student Matthew Basilico, this work provides an accessible and engaging framework for the study of global health. Insisting on an approach that is historically deep and geographically broad, the authors underline the importance of a transdisciplinary approach, and offer a highly readable distillation of several historical and ethnographic perspectives of contemporary global health problems. The case studies presented throughout Reimagining Global Health bring together ethnographic, theoretical, and historical perspectives into a wholly new and exciting investigation of global health. The interdisciplinary approach outlined in this text should prove useful not only in schools of public health, nursing, and medicine, but also in undergraduate and graduate classes in anthropology, sociology, political economy, and history, among others.

Political Reform In Francophone Africa

Author : John F Clark
ISBN : 9780429966736
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 78. 85 MB
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Most African states experienced only a few fleeting years of democratic rule after independence before succumbing to authoritarianism. During the 1970s and 1980s, Africans and Westerners alike came to view dictatorship to be as much a part of the region’s social landscape as its grinding poverty. Yet the end of the Cold War and the sharpening of the economic crisis at the end of the 1980s have breathed new life into campaigns for democracy in Africa, shaking the foundations of many long-standing autocracies. In some cases, dramatic transitions took place, though the fate of the new democracies is far from certain. This volume explores the origins and evolution of political reform movements in several states of francophone Africa. The authors first make the case for the distinctiveness of francophone Africa, based on the influences of colonial history, language, and France’s contemporary role in Africa, then survey the challenges of reform, including the problems of transition from authoritarianism and consolidation of democratic regimes. Case studies of thirteen former French and Belgian colonies follow, organized by level of reform achieved: peaceful regime change, incremental reforms, repressed reform efforts, and reform in the midst of war.

Memory And Justice In Post Genocide Rwanda

Author : Timothy Longman
ISBN : 9781107678095
Genre : Political Science
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A critical exploration of the steps taken to promote peace, reconciliation and justice in post-genocide Rwanda.

The Order Of Genocide

Author : Scott Straus
ISBN : 9780801467141
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 63. 43 MB
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Winner of the Award for Excellence in Government and Political Science (AAP) The Rwandan genocide has become a touchstone for debates about the causes of mass violence and the responsibilities of the international community. Yet a number of key questions about this tragedy remain unanswered: How did the violence spread from community to community and so rapidly engulf the nation? Why did individuals make decisions that led them to take up machetes against their neighbors? And what was the logic that drove the campaign of extermination? According to Scott Straus, a social scientist and former journalist in East Africa for several years (who received a Pulitzer Prize nomination for his reporting for the Houston Chronicle), many of the widely held beliefs about the causes and course of genocide in Rwanda are incomplete. They focus largely on the actions of the ruling elite or the inaction of the international community. Considerably less is known about how and why elite decisions became widespread exterminatory violence. Challenging the prevailing wisdom, Straus provides substantial new evidence about local patterns of violence, using original research—including the most comprehensive surveys yet undertaken among convicted perpetrators—to assess competing theories about the causes and dynamics of the genocide. Current interpretations stress three main causes for the genocide: ethnic identity, ideology, and mass-media indoctrination (in particular the influence of hate radio). Straus's research does not deny the importance of ethnicity, but he finds that it operated more as a background condition. Instead, Straus emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence. A defensive civil war and the assassination of a president created a feeling of acute insecurity. Rwanda's unusually effective state was also central, as was the country's geography and population density, which limited the number of exit options for both victims and perpetrators. In conclusion, Straus steps back from the particulars of the Rwandan genocide to offer a new, dynamic model for understanding other instances of genocide in recent history—the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, the Balkans—and assessing the future likelihood of such events.

The Congo From Leopold To Kabila

Author : Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja
ISBN : 9781780329390
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 90. 65 MB
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The people of the Congo have suffered from a particularly brutal colonial rule, American interference after independence, decades of robbery at the hands of the dictator Mobutu and periodic warfare which continues even now in the East of the country. But, as this insightful political history makes clear, the Congolese people have not taken these multiple oppressions lying down and have fought over many years to establish democratic institutions at home and free themselves from foreign exploitation; indeed these are two aspects of a single project. Professor Nzongola-Ntalaja is one of his country's leading intellectuals and his panoramic understanding of the personalities and events, as well as class, ethnic and other factors, make his book a lucid, radical and utterly unromanticized account of his countrymen's struggle. His people's defeat and the state's post-colonial crisis are seen as resulting from a post-independence collapse of the anti-colonial alliance between the masses and the national leadership . This book is essential reading for understanding what is happening in the Congo and the Great Lakes region under the rule of the late President Kabila, and now his son. It will also stand as a milestone in how to write the modern political history of Africa.

Human Remains And Mass Violence

Author : Jean-Marc Dreyfus
ISBN : 9781847799722
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54. 35 MB
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This electronic version has been made available under a Creative Commons (BY-NC-ND) open access license. This book outlines for the first time in a single volume the theoretical and methodological tools for a study of human remains resulting from episodes of mass violence and genocide. Despite the highly innovative and contemporary research into both mass violence and the body, the most significant consequence of conflict - the corpse - remains absent from the scope of existing research. Why have human remains hitherto remained absent from our investigation, and how do historians, anthropologists and legal scholars, including specialists in criminology and political science, confront these difficult issues? By drawing on international case studies including genocides in Rwanda, the Khmer Rouge, Argentina, Russia and the context of post-World War II Europe, this ground-breaking edited collection opens new avenues of research. Multidisciplinary in scope, this volume will appeal to readers interested in an understanding of mass violence's aftermath, including researchers in history, anthropology, sociology, law, politics and modern warfare. The research program leading to this publication has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Programme (FP/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement n° 283-617.

Rwanda Before The Genocide

Author : J. J. Carney
ISBN : 9780190612375
Genre :
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Winner of the Bethwell A. Ogot Book Prize of the African Studies Association Between 1920 and 1994, the Catholic Church was Rwanda's most dominant social and religious institution. In recent years, the church has been critiqued for its perceived complicity in the ethnic discourse and political corruption that culminated with the 1994 genocide. In analyzing the contested legacy of Catholicism in Rwanda, Rwanda Before the Genocide focuses on a critical decade, from 1952 to 1962, when Hutu and Tutsi identities became politicized, essentialized, and associated with political violence. This study--the first English-language church history on Rwanda in over 30 years--examines the reactions of Catholic leaders such as the Swiss White Father André Perraudin and Aloys Bigirumwami, Rwanda's first indigenous bishop. It evaluates Catholic leaders' controversial responses to ethnic violence during the revolutionary changes of 1959-62 and after Rwanda's ethnic massacres in 1963-64, 1973, and the early 1990s. In seeking to provide deeper insight into the many-threaded roots of the Rwandan genocide, Rwanda Before the Genocide offers constructive lessons for Christian ecclesiology and social ethics in Africa and beyond.

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