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The Bilingual Brain

Author : Albert Costa
ISBN : 9780241391525
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 33. 25 MB
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'Fascinating. . . This engaging book explores just how multiple languages are acquired and sorted out by the brain. . . Costa's work derives from a great fund of knowledge, considerable curiosity and solidly scientific spirit' Philip Hensher Spectator The definitive study of bilingualism and the human brain from a leading neuropsychologist Over half of the world's population is bilingual and yet few of us understand how this extraordinary, complex ability really works. How do two languages co-exist in the same brain? What are the advantages and challenges of being bilingual? How do we learn - and forget - a language? In the first study of its kind, leading expert Albert Costa shares twenty years of experience to explore the science of language. Looking at studies and examples from Canada to France to South Korea, The Bilingual Brain investigates the significant impact of bilingualism on daily life from infancy to old age. It reveals, among other things, how babies differentiate between two languages just hours after birth, how accent affects the way in which we perceive others and even why bilinguals are better at conflict resolution. Drawing on cutting-edge neuro-linguistic research from his own laboratory in Barcelona as well from centres across the world, and his own bilingual family, Costa offers an absorbing examination of the intricacies and impact of an extraordinary skill. Highly engaging and hugely informative,The Bilingual Brain leaves us all with a sense of wonder at how language works. Translated by John W. Schwieter

The Bilingual Brain

Author : Arturo E. Hernandez
ISBN : 9780199828111
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 72. 15 MB
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Arturo Hernandez presents the results of 25 years of research into the factors that might help us to understand how two (or more) languages are stored in one brain. It is clear that the brain is not egalitarian—some languages are privileged and others are not, but why?

Translanguaging And The Bilingual Brain

Author : Nina Dumrukcic
ISBN : 9783110755671
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 87. 55 MB
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Multilingual classrooms and online communication are becoming increasingly linguistically diverse due to globalization and new discourse patterns are emerging. Many of these patterns include the use of linguistic resources from multiple languages in the same utterance. Translanguaging, a recent theoretical framework, is gaining prominence among scholars interested in studying these multilingual discursive practices and the concept of a unitary language system for lexical processing. The aim of this book is to gain a better understanding of the bilingual brain and how words and sentences that use features from socially distinct languages are processed. Using examples provided by multilingual study participants, a categorization of the various forms of translanguaging is developed to build a translanguaging model. Psycholinguistic methods such as eye tracking are combined with conventional sociolinguistic survey methodology to provide rich qualitative and quantitative data that address the cognitive effects of translanguaging and the underlying structure of translingual word-formations. This monograph shows how language biography, exposure, and attitude towards multilingual discursive practices all affect cognitive processing. It also demonstrates how multilingual speakers are setting the patterns for novel word-formations to be produced, thus having a social, cultural, and cognitive impact on how we communicate.

The Bilingual Mental Lexicon

Author : Aneta Pavlenko
ISBN : 9781847691248
Genre : Education
File Size : 38. 82 MB
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How are words organized in the bilingual mind? How are they linked to concepts? How do bi- and multilinguals process words in their multiple languages? Contributions to this volume offer up-to-date answers to these questions and provide a detailed introduction to interdisciplinary approaches used to investigate the bilingual lexicon.

Individual Variation And The Bilingual Advantage Factors That Modulate The Effect Of Bilingualism On Cognitive Control And Cognitive Reserve

Author : Maurits Van den Noort
ISBN : 9783039281046
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 67. 16 MB
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The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?

The Bilingual Advantage

Author : Diane Rodriguez
ISBN : 9780807755105
Genre : Education
File Size : 51. 13 MB
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This comprehensive account of bilingualism examines the importance of using students' native languages as a tool for supporting higher levels of learning. The authors highlight the social, linguistic, neuro-cognitive, and academic advantages of bilingualism, as well as the challenges faced by English language learners and their teachers in schools across the United States. They describe effective strategies for using native languages, even when the teacher lacks proficiency in that language. This resource addresses both the latest research and theory on native language instruction, along with its practical application (the what, the why, and how) in K-8 classrooms.

The Bilingual Brain

Author : Martin L. Albert
ISBN : UOM:39015002187428
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 47. 21 MB
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The Bilingualism Reader

Author : Li Wei
ISBN : 0415213355
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 39. 17 MB
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This is a comprehensive collection of key classic articles in the study of language contact. Designed as a structured student source-book, it covers: definitions and typology of bilingualism language choice and bilingual interaction grammar of codeswitching and bilingual acquisition the bilingual brain and bilingual production and perception methodological issues in the study of bilingualism. Invaluable editorial material guides the reader through the different sections. Critical discussion of research methods, graded study questions and activities, a comprehensive glossary, and an up-to-date resource list make The Bilingualism Reader an essential introductory text for students. Contributors: Peter Auer, Michael Clyne, Kees de Bot, Charles Ferguson, Joshua Fishman, Fred Genesee, David Green, François Grosjean, John Gumperz, Monica Heller, Li Wei, William Mackey, Jurgen Meisel, Lesley Milroy, Carol Myers-Scotton, Loraine K. Obler, Michel Paradis, Shana Poplack.

Life As A Bilingual

Author : François Grosjean
ISBN : 9781108838641
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 60. 96 MB
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A book on those who know and use two or more languages: Who are they? How do they do it?

Perspectives On The Bilingual Advantage Challenges And Opportunities

Author : Peter Bright
ISBN : 9782889630172
Genre :
File Size : 76. 4 MB
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The claim that multilanguage acquisition drives advantages in ‘executive function’ is currently an issue of vigorous debate in academic literature. Critics argue that evidence for this advantage has been confounded by unsound or questionable methodological practices, with some investigators abandoning research in this area altogether, indicating either that there is no bilingual advantage or that it is impossible to capture and therefore rule out alternative explanations for group differences. Over the past decade, and against this backdrop, theory has developed from a relatively narrow focus on inhibitory control to incorporate theory of mind, rule-based learning, reactive and proactive control, visuo-spatial memory, and control of verbal interference in speech comprehension. Most recently, authors have claimed that the process of becoming bilingual may also impact on metacognitive abilities. The fundamental issue is whether the limited capacity and goal-directed selectivity of our executive system can somehow be enhanced or otherwise profit from the continuous, intense competition associated with communicating in multilingual environments. However, although this issue has received much attention in academic literature, the question of which cognitive mechanisms are most influenced by the enhanced competition associated with multilingual contexts remains unresolved. Therefore, rather than dismissing this important topic, we advocate a more systematic approach in which the effects of multilinguistic experience are assessed and interpreted across well-defined stages of cognitive development. We encourage a broad, developmentally informed approach to plotting the trajectory of interactions between multi-language learning and cognitive development, using a convergence of neuroimaging and behavioral methods, across the whole lifespan. Moreover, we suggest that the current theoretical framing of the bilingual advantage is simplistic, and this issue may limit attempts to identify specific mechanisms most likely to be modulated by multilingual experience. For example, there is a tendency in academic literature to treat ‘executive function’ as an essentially unitary fronto-parietal system recruited in response to all manner of cognitive demand, yet performance across so called ‘executive function’ tasks is highly variable and intercorrelations are sometimes low. It may be the case that some ‘higher level’ mechanisms of 'executive function' remain relatively unaffected, while others are more sensitive to multilingual experience – and that there may be disadvantages as well as advantages, which themselves may be sensitive to factors such as age. In our view, there is an urgent need to take a more fine-grained approach to this issue, so that the strength and direction of changes in diverse cognitive abilities associated with multilanguage acquisition can be better understood. This book compiles work from psychologists and neuroscientists who actively research whether, how, and the extent to which multilanguage acquisition promotes enhanced cognition or protects against age-related cognitive or neurological deterioration. We hope this collection encourages future efforts to drive theoretical progress well beyond the highly simplistic issue of whether the bilingual cognitive advantage is real or spurious.

Life With Two Languages

Author : François Grosjean
ISBN : 0674530926
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 24. 72 MB
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Many people consider bilinguals to be exceptional, yet almost half the world's population speaks more than one language. Bilingualism is found in every country of the world, in every class of society, in all age groups. Life with Two Languages is the first book to provide a complete and authoritative look at the nature of the bilingual experience. François Grosjean, himself a bilingual, covers the topic from each of its many angles in order to provide a balanced introduction to this fascinating phenomenon. Grosjean discusses the political and social situations that arise when languages come into contact and the policies nations have established toward their linguistic minorities in the domains of education and governance. Of particular interest is his detailed account of the psychological and social factors that lead a bilingual to choose one of her languages when speaking to another bilingual or to use both languages in the fascinating phenomenon of code-switching. The author explains how children become bilingual as quickly as they become monolingual, describes the organization of languages in the bilingual brain, and examines the legacy of bilingualism on language, as exemplified in word borrowings. Above all, Life with Two Languages puts the emphasis on the bilingual person. In a series of first-hand reports scattered throughout the book, bilinguals tell what it is like to live with two languages and describe the educational and social experiences they have undergone. Written in a clear and informative style, Life with Two Languages will appeal to professionals and students in linguistics, education, sociology, and psychology, as well as to the more casually curious.

The Bilingual Mind

Author : Rafael Art Javier
ISBN : 9780387309149
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 23. 82 MB
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This book fills a critical gap in the cross-cultural literature by illuminating the bilingual experience in both its social and clinical contexts. Rafael Javier makes a convincing, empirically founded case for what he terms the bilingual mind, with its own particular approach to cognition, memory, and emotional and social development. Using this framework, he provides answers to important questions about the way bilingualism affects cognition and development.

The Test Of Everyday Attention For Children

Author :
ISBN : 0749132809
Genre :
File Size : 43. 18 MB
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Becoming A Bilingual Family

Author : Stephen Marks
ISBN : 9780292743755
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 88. 52 MB
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Would you like your children to grow up bilingual, even if you aren't yet? Then speak to your kids in Spanish as you learn the language along with them. Becoming a Bilingual Family gives English-speaking parents the tools to start speaking Spanish with their kids in their earliest years, when children are most receptive to learning languages. It teaches the vocabulary and idioms for speaking to children in Spanish and offers practical, proven ways to create a language-learning environment at home. The first part of the book introduces parents to many resources—books, audio books, music, television, computer programs, childcare workers, school, and friends—that can help you establish a home environment conducive to the acquisition of Spanish. The second part is a Spanish phrasebook that takes you through all the typical activities that parents and children share, from getting up in the morning to going to bed at night. Few, if any, other Spanish study aids provide this much vocabulary and guidance for talking to small children about common daily activities. The authors also include a quick course in Spanish pronunciation and enough grammar to get a parent started. Spanish-language resources, kids' names in Spanish, and an easy-to-use index and glossary complete the book. Take the Markses' advice and start talking to your kids in Spanish, even if it's not perfect. You'll learn the language together and share the excitement of discovering the peoples and cultures that make up the Spanish-speaking world.

The Bilingual Revolution

Author : Fabrice Jaumont
ISBN : 9781947626003
Genre : Education
File Size : 39. 28 MB
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The Bilingual Revolution is a collection of inspirational vignettes and practical advice that tells the story of the parents and educators who founded dual language programs in New York City public schools. The book doubles as a "how to" manual for setting up your own bilingual school and, in so doing, launching your own revolution.

Tall Tales About The Mind And Brain

Author : Sergio Della Sala
ISBN : 9780191665844
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 36. 39 MB
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Does listening to Mozart make us more intelligent? Is there such a thing as a gay gene? Does the size of the brain matter? Does the moon influence our behaviour? Can we communicate with the dead? Can graphology tell us anything about a person's character? Is the human brain clonable? What role do dreams have in cognition? Can mind conquer matter and diseases? Are out-of-body experiences possible? Can we trust our intuitions? To some, the answer to all these questions might well be a resounding 'no', but to many people these represent serious beliefs about the mind and brain - beliefs that drive their everyday behaviour, beliefs that cost them huge amounts of money. Whole industries have developed founded on these dubious claims about the mind and brain. Even major corporations have dabbled with assessment methods such as those advocated by graphology, accepting and rejecting candidates on the basic of their handwriting. Expectant parents buy books and tapes by the dozen showing them how to improve the intelligence of their child by playing them classical music. People subscribe to expensive therapies founded on beliefs rather than science, or risk their health buying books that tell them how they can conquer illness through positive thinking, perhaps at the expense of more scientifically proven treatments. Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain presents a sweeping survey of common myths about the mind and brain. In a lighthearted and accessible style, it exposes the truth behind these beliefs, how they are perpetuated, why people believe them, and why they might even exist in the first place.

An Introduction To Bilingualism

Author : Jeanette Altarriba
ISBN : 9781351589796
Genre : Education
File Size : 69. 8 MB
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The study of bilingualism and all of its aspects – from theory and models to social approaches and their practical applications – forms the cornerstone of the 2nd edition of this work. The chapters cover the latest advancements in the domains of psycholinguistics, neuroscience, creativity, and executive functioning. Contributions, new to this edition, offer the reader the most up-to-date research on lifespan and developmental issues. The work also provides insight into how human language is processed by all, not just by bilingual and multilingual speakers. This text is ideal for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in psycholinguistics and the psychology of language, especially those with an emphasis on bilingualism or second language learning.

Advances In The Study Of Bilingualism

Author : Dr. Enlli Môn Thomas
ISBN : 9781783091720
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 90. 14 MB
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This book provides a contemporary approach to the study of bilingualism. Drawing on contributions from leading experts in the field, this book brings together - in a single volume - a selection of the exciting work conducted as part of the programme of the ESRC Centre for Research on Bilingualism in Theory and Practice at Bangor University, Wales. Each chapter has as its main focus an exploration of the relationship between the two languages of a bilingual. Section by section, the authors draw on current findings and methodologies to explore the ways in which their research can address this question from a number of different perspectives.

The Bilingual Lexicon

Author : Robert Schreuder
ISBN : 9789027241085
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 60. 32 MB
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In the study of bilingualism, the lexical level of language is of prime importance because, in practical terms, vocabulary acquisition is an essential prerequisite for the development of skill in language use; from a theoretical point of view, the mental lexicon, as a bridge between form and meaning, plays a crucial role in any model of language processing. A central issue in this volume is at which level of the bilingual speaker's lexicon languages share representations and how language-specific representations may be linked. The contributors favor a dynamic, developmental perspective on bilingualism, which takes account of the change of the mental lexicon over time and pays considerable attention to the acquisition phase. Several papers deal with the level of proficiency and its consequences for bilingual lexical processing, as well as the effects of practice. This discussion raises numerous questions about the notion of (lexical) proficiency and how this can be established by objective standards, an area of study that invites collaboration between researchers working from a theoretical and from a practical background.

Translanguaging And The Bilingual Brain

Author : Nina Dumrukcic
ISBN : 9783110755640
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 27. 64 MB
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Multilingual classrooms and online communication are becoming increasingly linguistically diverse due to globalization and new discourse patterns are emerging. Many of these patterns include the use of linguistic resources from multiple languages in the same utterance. Translanguaging, a recent theoretical framework, is gaining prominence among scholars interested in studying these multilingual discursive practices and the concept of a unitary language system for lexical processing. The aim of this book is to gain a better understanding of the bilingual brain and how words and sentences that use features from socially distinct languages are processed. Using examples provided by multilingual study participants, a categorization of the various forms of translanguaging is developed to build a translanguaging model. Psycholinguistic methods such as eye tracking are combined with conventional sociolinguistic survey methodology to provide rich qualitative and quantitative data that address the cognitive effects of translanguaging and the underlying structure of translingual word-formations. This monograph shows how language biography, exposure, and attitude towards multilingual discursive practices all affect cognitive processing. It also demonstrates how multilingual speakers are setting the patterns for novel word-formations to be produced, thus having a social, cultural, and cognitive impact on how we communicate.

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