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Syria S Monuments Their Survival And Destruction

Author : Michael Greenhalgh
ISBN : 9789004334601
Genre : History
File Size : 29. 20 MB
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Syria's Monuments: their Survival and Destruction analyses travellers’ accounts of the Roman, Christian and Islamic monuments of Syria (including Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine/Israel). An epilogue assesses the impact of the recent civil war on the state of the monuments, and their likely future.

Syria S Monuments Their Survival And Destruction

Author : Michael Greenhalgh
ISBN : 9004329579
Genre : History
File Size : 87. 99 MB
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Syria's Monuments: their Survival and Destruction analyses travellers accounts of the Roman, Christian and Islamic monuments of Syria (including Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine/Israel). An epilogue assesses the impact of the recent civil war on the state of the monuments, and their likely future."

Manuscripts Politics And Oriental Studies

Author :
ISBN : 9789004393141
Genre : History
File Size : 51. 40 MB
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Manuscripts, Politics and Oriental Studies commemorates the life and works of Johann Gottfried Wetzstein (1815-1905) as a scholar and consul in Berlin and Damascus. It also illustrates contemporary developments in manuscript collecting and Oriental studies.

Pearl Of The Desert

Author : Rubina Raja
ISBN : 9780190852221
Genre : Tadmur (Syria)
File Size : 42. 72 MB
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Palmyra has long attracted the attention of the world. Even before its rediscovery in the eighteenth century it had gained legendary status because of its third-century CE Queen Zenobia, who had rebelled against the Romans and expanded Palmyra's territory into that of an Empire, stretchingfrom what is modern eastern Turkey into Egypt. The city and its queen featured in European art and literature already in the century. Zenobia's Palmyra already existed as a mirage in the minds of the educated Europeans. Even though Zenobia's reign and extensive power was a fairly short interlude andthe Romans struck hard against the Palmyrenes devastating the city, this path to imperial power was one which tells us an immense amount about Palmyrene identity in the period before the devastation. While Zenobia has gained renewed interest among both scholars and the press, and while she hasserved as a political symbol for Syria's president As'ad (a statue of her was recently erected in Damascus), the time leading up to her reign still remains underexplored.With the current situation in Syria, a researched-based narrative is urgently needed to communicate the importance of this site to the general public. Palmyra has over the last years been used as a symbol of the resistance of the rebels, the power of ISIS over the region, as well as the supremacy ofthe Syrian state. UNESCO and the Russians have together with the Syrian state taken a particular interest in Palmyra and in monopolizing the potential rebuilding of the site after the destruction and looting of the past several years have subsided. We are, so to speak, standing at yet anotherturning point in Palmyra's long history, where history is being reinvented actively by several parties. There can be no doubt that the time is ripe for a book on the archaeology and history of Palmyra, as well as an analysis of the current situation, including the destruction and illicit traffickingof material remains from Palmyra. These three main topics will together highlight the ways in which this fascinating site has again and again captured the world's focus.Organized in nine chapters, this compact book will set out to provide an introduction for students and general readers. Following two overview chapters, the next six will give a chronological narrative of Palmyra from the late Hellenistic period through to Rome's destruction in 273 CE and itssurvival in the Byzantine and medieval Islamic periods. The book ends with a shorter conclusion chapter, which will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of the chapters of the book and will set out a number of lines of enquiry which could be taken up in research and culturalheritage management over the coming years. The result will be the best and most up-to-date account of Palmyra in English.

Accountability For Violations Of International Humanitarian Law

Author : Jadranka Petrovic
ISBN : 9781317669791
Genre : Law
File Size : 25. 63 MB
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International criminal adjudication, together with the prosecution and appropriate punishment of offenders at a national level, remains the most effective means of enforcing International Humanitarian Law. This book considers the various issues emanating from present-day breaches of norms of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and the question of how impunity for such breaches can be tackled. Honouring the work of Timothy McCormack, Professor of International Law at the University of Melbourne and a world renowned expert on IHL and International Criminal Law, contributors of the book explore the interplay between the rules governing accountability for violations of IHL and other areas of law that impact the prosecution of war crimes, including international criminal law, human rights law, arms control law, constitutional law and national criminal law. In providing a contemporary consideration of the various issues emerging from present-day breaches of norms of IHL, especially in light of growing interest in ‘fragmentation’ and ‘normative pluralism’, this book will be of great use and interest to students and researchers in public international law, international law, and conflict studies.

Designs Of Destruction

Author : Lucia Allais
ISBN : 9780226286556
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 75. 94 MB
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The twentieth century was the most destructive in human history, but from its vast landscapes of ruins was born a new architectural type: the cultural monument. In the wake of World War I, an international movement arose which aimed to protect architectural monuments in large numbers, and regardless of style, hoping not only to keep them safe from future conflicts, but also to make them worthy of protection from more quotidian forms of destruction. This movement was motivated by hopeful idealism as much as by a pragmatic belief in bureaucracy. An evolving group—including architects, intellectuals, art historians, archaeologists, curators, and lawyers—grew out of the new diplomacy of the League of Nations. During and after World War II, it became affiliated with the Allied Military Government, and was eventually absorbed by the UN as UNESCO. By the 1970s, this organization had begun granting World Heritage status to a global register of significant sites—from buildings to bridges, shrines to city centers, ruins to colossi. Examining key episodes in the history of this preservation effort—including projects for the Parthenon, for the Cathedral of St-Lô, the temples of Abu Simbel, and the Bamyian Buddahs —Lucia Allais demonstrates how the group deployed the notion of culture to shape architectural sites, and how architecture in turn shaped the very idea of global culture. More than the story of an emergent canon, Designs of Destruction emphasizes how the technical project of ensuring various buildings’ longevity jolted preservation into establishing a transnational set of codes, values, practices. Yet as entire nations’ monumental geographies became part of survival plans, Allais also shows, this paradoxically helped integrate technologies of destruction—from bombs to bulldozers—into cultural governance. Thus Designs of Destruction not only offers a fascinating narrative of cultural diplomacy, based on extensive archival findings; it also contributes an important new chapter in the intellectual history of modernity by showing the manifold ways architectural form is charged with concretizing abstract ideas and ideals, even in its destruction.

Mass Atrocities The Responsibility To Protect And The Future Of Human Rights

Author : Simon Adams
ISBN : 9781000330724
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 65. 78 MB
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This book ambitiously weaves together history and politics to explain all of the major situations where mass atrocities have occurred, or been prevented, over the 15 years since the 'Responsibility to Protect' (R2P) was adopted at the 2005 UN World Summit. The author provides a history of human rights, mass atrocities and the principle of the R2P from the perspective of someone whose day job has been to work with the UN Security Council, various governments and civil society to help ensure the international community does not fail those who face the threat of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity today. It examines the implementation of the controversial principle of R2P since 2011 and how we end the politics of impunity, indifference and inaction once and for all. Using case studies from Iraq, Syria, Myanmar and Libya, the book offers a unique perspective regarding how we make 'never again' a living principle, rather than a cliché and how we end the politics of impunity, indifference and inaction once and for all. It will be of especial interest to scholars, students and policymakers working in the fields of international politics or concerned about human rights, atrocities, the United Nations and international justice in the world today.

The World Community And The Arab Spring

Author : Cenap Çakmak
ISBN : 9783319609850
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 45 MB
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This edited volume offers an understanding of how the international community, as a collection of significant actors including major states and intergovernmental institutions, has responded to the important political and social development of the Arab Spring. Contributors analyze the response by international organizations (UN, EU, NATO), big powers (US, Russia, China, UK), regional powers (Turkey, Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia) and small powers (Kuwait, Qatar). The book thus makes a sound contribution to the existing literature on the Arab Spring in form of foreign policy analysis and provides an overview of the current shape and outlook of global politics.

Fragmented Memory

Author : Nicoletta Bruno
ISBN : 9783110742091
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 48. 47 MB
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Chance, in addition to the unavoidable ambiguity caused by time, is one of the main guilty parties in the transmission of ancient texts – or lack thereof. However, the same cannot be said for what concerns the mechanisms of selection and loss of historical and literary memory, where the voluntary awareness of obscuring is often part of a precise aim, thus leading the cultural memory of a literate society to become fragmented. The present volume explores the devices and criteria of selection and loss in Ancient and Medieval texts and the subsequent fragmentation of such literature, but it also addresses the questions of the damnatio memoriae, of literary strategies such as reticence and omission, as well as of known texts deemed lost but re-found thanks to state-of-the-art methods in digitization. The many and diverse nuances of the concepts of omission, selection, and loss throughout Ancient and Medieval literature and history are illustrated through a number of case studies in the four sections of this volume, each examining a different facet of the topic: ‘Mechanisms and criteria of textual loss and selection’, ‘Lost texts re-discovered’, ‘Voluntary omissions and desire for oblivion’, and ‘Re-working the known’.

The Military And Colonial Destruction Of The Roman Landscape Of North Africa 1830 1900

Author : Michael Greenhalgh
ISBN : 9789004271630
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 12 MB
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The French pursued victory and colonisation amid a Roman landscape little affected down the centuries by local inhabitants. In the space of two generations they destroyed much of it, re-using its materials to create security and a modern prosperity.

Cultivating Political And Public Identity

Author : Rodney Barker
ISBN : 9781526114617
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 56. 59 MB
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This electronic version has been made available under a Creative Commons (BY) open access license. Throughout the twentieth century, everyone from Marxists to economic individualists assumed that social and political activity was driven by the rational pursuit of material gain. Today, the fundamental importance of the cultivation and preservation of identity is finally re-emerging. This book explores the rich fabric of speech, dress, diet and the built environment from which human identity is made. Synthesising methods and ideas from numerous disciplines – including history, political science, anthropology, law and sociology – it presents a picture of human life as more than just a collection of material interests. Its ultimate aim is to show that no human activity is trivial or meaningless, that everything counts and 'plumage' matters. An open access version of this book, funded by the London School of Economics and Political Science, is available under a CC-BY licence at and

The Past Is A Foreign Country Revisited

Author : David Lowenthal
ISBN : 9780521851428
Genre : History
File Size : 42. 74 MB
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A completely updated new edition of David Lowenthal's classic account of how we reshape the past to serve present needs.

Plundered Empire

Author : Michael Greenhalgh
ISBN : 9789004405479
Genre : Art
File Size : 21. 14 MB
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Providing extensive documentation, the book examines the mechanics, trials and tribulations of plundering the Ottoman East for private and public collections in Europe. It helps document the continuing debate about the ethics of museum collections.

Archaeology The Basics

Author : Clive Gamble
ISBN : 9781317542759
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 59. 42 MB
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Now in an updated third edition, Archaeology: The Basics provides a straightforward and engaging introduction to the world of Archaeology. This book answers key questions about how and why we practice archaeology and examines the theories and themes underpinning the subject. Fully updated, this new edition includes a wide range of examples and new material on key growth areas including: * Evolutionary approaches in current archaeology * The archaeology of landscape and place * The impact and value of archaeology * Conflict archaeology and the politics of the past With 12 new illustrations, four new boxes and additional case studies this text is essential reading for all those beginning to study archaeology and anyone who has ever questioned the past.

Group Survival In The Ancient Mediterranean

Author : Philip A. Harland
ISBN : 9780567657497
Genre : Religion
File Size : 84. 69 MB
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Philip A. Harland and Richard Last consider the economics of early Christian group life within its social, cultural and economic contexts, by drawing on extensive epigraphic and archaeological evidence. In exploring the informal associations, immigrant groups, and guilds that dotted the world of the early Christians, Harland and Last provide fresh perspective on the question of how Christian assemblies and Judean/Jewish gatherings gained necessary resources to pursue their social, religious, and additional aims. By considering both neglected archaeological discoveries and literary evidence, the authors analyse financial and material aspects of group life, both sources of income and various areas of expenditure. Harland and Last then turn to the use of material resources for mutual support of members in various groups, including the importance of burial and the practice of interest-free loans. Christian and Judean evidence is explored throughout this book, culminating in a discussion of texts detailing the internal financial life of Christian assemblies as seen in first and second century sources, including Paul, the Didache, Justin Martyr, and Tertullian. In shedding new light on early Christian financial organisation, this volume aids further understanding of how some Christian groups survived and developed in the Greco-Roman world.

The War Report

Author : Stuart Casey-Maslen
ISBN : 9780191037658
Genre : Law
File Size : 21. 68 MB
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This War Report provides detailed information on every armed conflict which took place during 2013, offering an unprecedented overview of the nature, range, and impact of these conflicts and the legal issues they created. In Part I, the Report describes its criteria for the identification and classification of armed conflicts under international law, and the legal consequences that flow from this classification. It sets out a list of armed conflicts in 2013, categorising each as international, non-international, or a military occupation, with estimates of civilian and military casualties. In Part II, each of the 28 conflicts identified in Part I are examined in more detail, with an overview of the belligerents, means and methods of warfare, the applicable treaties and rules, and any prosecutions for, investigations into, or robust allegations of war crimes. Part III of the Report provides detailed thematic analysis of key legal developments which arose in the context of these conflicts, allowing for a more in-depth reflection on cross-cutting questions and controversies. The topics under investigation in this Report include US policy on drone strikes, the use of chemical weapons in Syria, the protection of persons with a disability, and national and international war crimes trials. The Report gives a full and accessible overview of armed conflicts in 2013, making it the perfect first port of call for everyone working in the field.

The Destruction Of Art

Author : Dario Gamboni
ISBN : 0948462949
Genre : Art
File Size : 44. 31 MB
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The first comprehensive examination of modern iconoclasm, The Destruction of Art looks at deliberate attacks against works of art in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. "well-illustrated... Gamboni brings together a great deal of fascinating information"—The Independent "Erudite and entertaining, Gamboni's book is an excellent guide to the outrageous in art."— Glasgow Herald

The Power Of Art Revised

Author : Richard L. Lewis
ISBN : 9781337671972
Genre : Art
File Size : 53. 57 MB
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Compelling and accessible, THE POWER OF ART features gorgeous images and themes that connect with today's students and an engaging writing style that's praised by instructors and students alike. The revised third edition delivers a brief yet comprehensive survey which demonstrates that art is everywhere and relevant to all students. The text incorporates global material, reflecting cultural intersections and mutual influences--and Art News boxes present real events, connecting art to students' lives. In addition to excellent art history coverage, THE POWER OF ART features a diverse mix of artists and spotlights current trends in artistic mediums and themes. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Cultural Heritage And Mass Atrocities

Author : James Cuno
ISBN : 9781606068083
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 3 MB
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A pathbreaking call to halt the intertwined crises of cultural heritage attacks and mass atrocities and mobilize international efforts to protect people and cultures. Intentional destruction of cultural heritage has a long history. Contemporary examples include the Bamiyan Buddhas in Afghanistan, mosques in Xinjiang, mausoleums in Timbuktu, and Greco-Roman remains in Syria. Cultural heritage destruction invariably accompanies assaults on civilians, making heritage attacks impossible to disentangle from the mass atrocities of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing. Both seek to eliminate people and the heritage with which they identify. Cultural Heritage and Mass Atrocities assembles essays by thirty-eight experts from the heritage, social science, humanitarian, legal, and military communities. Focusing on immovable cultural heritage vulnerable to attack, the volume's guiding framework is the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), a United Nations resolution adopted unanimously in 2005 to permit international intervention against crimes of war or genocide. Based on the three pillars of prevent, react, and rebuild, R2P offers today's policymakers a set of existing laws and international norms that can and—as this book argues—must be extended to the protection of cultural heritage. Contributions consider the global value of cultural heritage and document recent attacks on people and sites in China, Guatemala, Iraq, Mali, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, Syria, and Yemen. Comprehensive sections on vulnerable populations as well as the role of international law and the military offer readers critical insights and point toward research, policy, and action agendas to protect both people and cultural heritage. A concise abstract of each chapter is offered online in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish to facilitate robust, global dissemination of the strategies and tactics offered in this pathbreaking call to action. The free online edition of this publication is available at Also available are free PDF, EPUB, and Kindle/MOBI downloads of the book.

The Art Of Syria And The Jaz?ra 1100 1250

Author : Julian Raby
ISBN : UOM:39015042583180
Genre : Art
File Size : 86. 34 MB
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This book is the first in a new series, the Oxford Studies in Islamic Art. It is a collection of papers from the Oxford Colloquium on Islamic Art held in 1984 at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The series will consider all aspects of Islamic Art including: architecture, the art of the book, decorative arts and iconography.

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