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Populism In Twentieth Century Mexico

Author : Amelia Marie Kiddle
ISBN : 0816529183
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 13 MB
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"This is a great contribution to the field of modern Mexican history as well as the history of Latin American populism. Populism in Twentieth Century Mexico offers an intuitive and insightful series of chapters focusing on the plans, programs, successes, and failures of Mexico's two most influential populist presidents."ùJames Alex Garza, author of The Imagined Underworld: Sex, Crime, and Vice in Porfirian Mexico City Mexican presidents Lßzaro Cßrdenas (19341940) and Luis Echeverria (1970-1976) used populist politics in an effort to obtain broad-based popular support for their presidential goals. In spite of differences in administrative plans, both aimed to close political divisions within society, extend government programs to those on the margins of national life, and prevent foreign ideologies and practices from disrupting domestic politics. As different as they were in political style, both relied on appealing to the public through mass media, clothing styles, and music. This volume brings together twelve original essays that explore the concept of populism in twentieth century Mexico. Contributors analyze the presidencies of two of the century's most clearly populist figures, evaluating them against each other and in light of other Latin American and Mexican populist leaders. In order to examine both positive and negative effects of populist political styles, contributors also show how groups as diverse as wild yam pickers in 1970s Oaxaca and intellectuals in 1930s Mexico City had access to and affected government projects. The chapters on the Echeverria presidency are written by contributors at the forefront of emerging scholarship on this topic and demonstrate new approaches to this critical period in Mexican history Through comparisons to Echeverria, contributors also shed new light on the Cardenas presidency, suggesting fresh areas of investigation into the work of Mexico's quintessentially populist leader. Ranging in approach from environmental history to labor history, the essays in this volume present a complex picture of twentieth century populism in Mexico. Amelia M. Kiddle holds an Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowship in Latin American Studies at the Center for the Americas at Wesleyan University. Maria L.O. Mu±oz is an assistant professor of history at Susquehanna University, where she holds a Winifred and Gustave Weber Fellowship in the Humanities.

Populism In Latin America

Author : Michael L. Conniff
ISBN : 9780817357092
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 33 MB
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This updated edition of Populism in Latin America discusses new developments in populism as a political phenomenon and the emergence of new populist political figures in Mexico, Argentina, and Venezuela in particular.

Histories Of Drug Trafficking In Twentieth Century Mexico

Author : Wil G. Pansters
ISBN : 9780826363596
Genre : History
File Size : 81. 48 MB
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This work brings together a new generation of drug historians and new historical sources to uncover the history of the drug trade and its regulations. While the US and Mexican governments developed anti-drug discourses and policies, which criminalized both high-profile traffickers and small-time addicts, these authorities also employed the criminals and cash connected to the drug trade to pursue more pressing political concerns. The politics, socioeconomic relations, and criminal justice system of modern Mexico has been shaped by standing public and covert state policies as well as by the interaction of subnational trajectories of drug production and trafficking. The essays in this study explore this complicated narrative and provide insight into Mexico’s history and the wider contemporary global drug trade.

History Of Political Parties In Twentieth Century Latin America

Author : Torcuato Di Tella
ISBN : 9781351515498
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 86 MB
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The general perception of modern Latin American political institutions emphasizes a continuing and random process of disorder and crisis, continually out of step with other regions in their progress toward democracy and prosperity. In "History of Political Parties in Twentieth-Century Latin America," Torcuato S. Di Tella demonstrates that this common view lacks context and comparative nuance, and is deeply misleading. Looking behind the scenes of modern Latin American history, he discerns its broad patterns through close analysis of actual events and comparative sociological perspectives that explain the apparent chaos of the past and point toward the more democratic polity now developing. Di Tella argues that although Latin America has peculiarities of its own, they must be understood in their contrasts - and similarities - with both the developed centers and undeveloped peripheries of the world. Latin American societies have been prone to mass rebellions from very early on, more so than in other regions of the world. He analyzes, as well, such significant exceptions to this pattern as Chile, Colombia, and, to a large extent, Brazil. Turning to the other side of the social spectrum, he shows how the underprivileged classes have tended to support strongman populist movements, which have the double character of being aggressive toward the established order, but at the same time repressive of public liberties and of more radical groups. Di Tella provides here a necessary examination of the concept of populism and divides it into several variants. Populism, he maintains, is by no means disappearing, but its variants are instead undergoing important changes with significant bearing on the region's near-term future. "History of Political Parties in Twentieth-Century Latin America" is rich in historical description, but also in its broad review of social structures and of the strengths and weaknesses of political institutions. Choice commented that "this heavily documented volume with an extensive bibliography would prove valuable to researchers and advanced students of Latin America.

Violence Coercion And State Making In Twentieth Century Mexico

Author : Wil G. Pansters
ISBN : 9780804784474
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 31 MB
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Mexico is currently undergoing a crisis of violence and insecurity that poses serious threats to democratic transition and rule of law. This is the first book to put these developments in the context of post-revolutionary state-making in Mexico and to show that violence in Mexico is not the result of state failure, but of state-making. While most accounts of politics and the state in recent decades have emphasized processes of transition, institutional conflict resolution, and neo-liberal reform, this volume lays out the increasingly important role of violence and coercion by a range of state and non-state armed actors. Moreover, by going beyond the immediate concerns of contemporary Mexico, this volume pushes us to rethink longterm processes of state-making and recast influential interpretations of the so-called golden years of PRI rule. Violence, Coercion, and State-Making in Twentieth-Century Mexico demonstrates that received wisdom has long prevented the concerted and systematic study of violence and coercion in state-making, not only during the last decades, but throughout the post-revolutionary period. The Mexican state was built much more on violence and coercion than has been acknowledged—until now.

Stand Up And Fight

Author : María L. O. Muñoz
ISBN : 9780816532506
Genre : History
File Size : 81. 54 MB
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6. In Defense of Our People: The National Council of Indigenous Peoples, 1975-1985 -- Conclusion: Reimagining the Field of Force -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index

The Logic Of Compromise In Mexico

Author : Gladys I. McCormick
ISBN : 9781469627755
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 5 MB
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In this political history of twentieth-century Mexico, Gladys McCormick argues that the key to understanding the immense power of the long-ruling Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) is to be found in the countryside. Using newly available sources, including declassified secret police files and oral histories, McCormick looks at large-scale sugar cooperatives in Morelos and Puebla, two major agricultural regions that serve as microcosms of events across the nation. She argues that Mexico's rural peoples, despite shouldering much of the financial burden of modernization policies, formed the PRI regime's most fervent base of support. McCormick demonstrates how the PRI exploited this support, using key parts of the countryside to test and refine instruments of control--including the regulation of protest, manipulation of collective memories of rural communities, and selective application of violence against critics--that it later employed in other areas, both rural and urban. With three peasant leaders, brothers named Ruben, Porfirio, and Antonio Jaramillo, at the heart of her story, McCormick draws a capacious picture of peasant activism, disillusion, and compromise in state formation, revealing the basis for an enduring political culture dominated by the PRI. On a broader level, McCormick demonstrates the connections among modern state building in Latin America, the consolidation of new forms of authoritarian rule, and the deployment of violence on all sides.

Rethinking Mexican Indigenismo

Author : Stephen E. Lewis
ISBN : 9780826359032
Genre : History
File Size : 37. 19 MB
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Mexico’s National Indigenist Institute (INI) was at the vanguard of hemispheric indigenismo from 1951 through the mid-1970s, thanks to the innovative development projects that were first introduced at its pilot Tseltal-Tsotsil Coordinating Center in highland Chiapas. This book traces how indigenista innovation gave way to stagnation as local opposition, shifting national priorities, and waning financial support took their toll. After 1970 indigenismo may have served the populist aims of president Luis Echeverría, but Mexican anthropologists, indigenistas, and the indigenous themselves increasingly challenged INI theory and practice and rendered them obsolete.

Mexico City S Olympic Games

Author : Axel Elías
ISBN : 9783030741112
Genre : History
File Size : 38. 27 MB
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This book looks at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games as a complex nation-building project. Sports mega-events have been mostly studied as homogenous government-led strategies, but more work is needed around the diverse reception and performances. The preparation period for the Olympics in Mexico and especially the year 1968 highlight the multiplicity of voices behind these exercises. Beyond the government and associated networks, the citizenry also used this mega-event to present an idea of Mexico to the world and thus reshape citizenship and nationhood. This study takes a bottom-up approach to look at the citizenry’s experiences of the 1968 Olympic Games, both the shared nationalistic values and the areas of conflict.

Creating P?tzcuaro Creating Mexico

Author : Jennifer Jolly
ISBN : 9781477314227
Genre : Art
File Size : 73. 98 MB
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In the 1930s, the artistic and cultural patronage of celebrated Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas transformed a small Michoacán city, Pátzcuaro, into a popular center for national tourism. Cárdenas commissioned public monuments and archeological excavations; supported new schools, libraries, and a public theater; developed tourism sites and infrastructure, including the Museo de Artes e Industrias Populares; and hired artists to paint murals celebrating regional history, traditions, and culture. The creation of Pátzcuaro was formative for Mexico; not only did it provide an early model for regional economic and cultural development, but it also helped establish some of Mexico's most enduring national myths, rituals, and institutions. In Creating Pátzcuaro, Creating Mexico, Jennifer Jolly argues that Pátzcuaro became a microcosm of cultural power during the 1930s and that we find the foundations of modern Mexico in its creation. Her extensive historical and archival research reveals how Cárdenas and the artists and intellectuals who worked with him used cultural patronage as a guise for radical modernization in the region. Jolly demonstrates that the Pátzcuaro project helped define a new modern body politic for Mexico, in which the population was asked to emulate Cárdenas by touring the country and seeing and embracing its land, history, and people. Ultimately, by offering Mexicans a means to identify and engage with power and privilege, the creation of Pátzcuaro placed art and tourism at the center of Mexico's postrevolutionary nation building project.

Stand Up And Fight

Author : María L. O. Muñoz
ISBN : 9780816533794
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 5 MB
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In 1975 a watershed moment captivated Mexico as indigenous peoples from across the country came together on the Island of Janitzio for the First National Congress of Indigenous Peoples. The congress was a federal government initiative intended to preempt an independent indigenous movement. But indigenous groups circumvented the intended containment policies of the congress and made bold demands for political self-determination. Using previously unavailable documents, María L. O. Muñoz examines the events that led to the congress, the meeting itself, and developments after the assembly. Muñoz shows how indigenous leaders working within Mexico’s Department of Colonization and Agrarian Affairs (DAAC) sidestepped state attempts to control indigenous communities, and how they made bold demands that redefined the ways federal and state governments engaged with pueblos indígenas. Through research in previously untapped archives, Muñoz is able to trace the political history of the indigenous leaders and government officials who redefined the ways indigenous peoples engaged with governments. She illustrates the fluid and evolving power relationships of the key players with a focus on the twelve years of populism in the last decades of the twentieth century. This book challenges the discourse of unquestioned power and hegemony of the national ruling party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and it illustrates how indigenous communities in Mexico reimagined their roles in the social, political, and economic life of the nation.

Mexico In World History

Author : William H. Beezley
ISBN : 9780199722204
Genre : History
File Size : 50. 69 MB
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Drawing on materials ranging from archaeological findings to recent studies of migration issues and drug violence, William H. Beezley provides a dramatic narrative of human events as he recounts the story of Mexico in the context of world history. Beginning with the Mayan and Aztec civilizations and their brutal defeat at the hands of the Conquistadors, Beezley highlights the penetrating effect of Spain's three-hundred-year colonial rule, during which Mexico became a multicultural society marked by Roman Catholicism and the Spanish language. Independence, he shows, was likewise marked by foreign invasions and huge territorial losses, this time at the hands of the United States, who annexed a vast land mass--including the states of Texas, New Mexico, and California--and remained a powerful presence along the border. The 1910 revolution propelled land, educational, and public health reforms, but later governments turned to authoritarian rule, personal profits, and marginalization of rural, indigenous, and poor Mexicans. Throughout this eventful chronicle, Beezley highlights the people and international forces that shaped Mexico's rich and tumultuous history.

Specters Of Revolution

Author : Alexander Aviña
ISBN : 9780199936571
Genre : History
File Size : 59. 27 MB
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"Specters of Revolution examines the development of two guerrilla insurgencies led by schoolteachers in Mexico during the 1960s. Relying upon recently declassified documents and oral histories, it chronicles a history of nonviolent peasant political action, underscored by long-held rural utopian ideals, radicalized by persistent state terror"--

Mexico S Relations With Latin America During The C?rdenas Era

Author : Amelia M. Kiddle
ISBN : 9780826356918
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26. 90 MB
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This book examines culture and diplomacy in Mexico’s relations with the rest of Latin America during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–1940). Drawing on archival research throughout Latin America, the author demonstrates that Cárdenas’s representation of Mexico as a revolutionary nation contributed to the formation of Mexican national identity and spread the legacy of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 beyond Mexico’s borders. Cárdenas did more than any other president to fulfill the goals of the revolution, incorporating the masses into the political life of the nation and implementing land reform, resource nationalization, and secular public education, and his government promoted the idea that these reforms represented a path to social, political, and economic development for the entire region. Kiddle offers a colorful and detailed account of the way Cardenista diplomacy was received in the rest of Latin America and the influence his policies had throughout the continent.

Redeeming The Revolution

Author : Joseph U. Lenti
ISBN : 9781496201331
Genre : History
File Size : 79. 12 MB
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A tale of sin and redemption, Joseph U. Lenti's Redeeming the Revolution demonstrates how the killing of hundreds of student protestors in Mexico City's Tlatelolco district on October 2-3, 1968, sparked a crisis of legitimacy that moved Mexican political leaders to reestablish their revolutionary credentials with the working class, a sector only tangentially connected to the bloodbath. State-allied labor groups hence became darlings of public policy in the post-Tlatelolco period, and with the implementation of the New Federal Labor Law of 1970, the historical symbiotic relationship of the government and organized labor was restored. Renewing old bonds with trusted allies such as the Confederation of Mexican Workers bore fruit for the regime, yet the road to redemption was fraught with peril during this era of Cold War and class contestation. While Luis Echeverr�a, Fidel Vel�zquez, and other officials appeased union brass with discourses of revolutionary populism and policies that challenged business leaders, conflicts emerged, and repression ensued when rank-and-file workers criticized the chasm between rhetoric and reality and tested their leaders' limits of toleration.

M?xico Beyond 1968

Author : Jaime M. Pensado
ISBN : 9780816538423
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 20 MB
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This book offers a critical look at Mexican activism that expands our understanding of social movements during the Global 1960s--Provided by publisher.

Agrarian Populism And The Mexican State

Author : Steven E. Sanderson
ISBN : 0520040562
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 52. 74 MB
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As oil-rich Mexico faces the 1980s, conflicts between agrarian populism and capitalist industrialization call for resolution. The internal peace and political stability that made the period between the late 1930s and the early 1970s so productive left many Mexicans--particularly the campesinos--marginal to the benefits of the economy. During this period of economic growth, agrarian reform, the trademark of the Mexican revolution, was relegated to a position of lesser importance in national politics. But with forty percent of the population still remaning in the countryside, it is clear that programs for rural development and land redistribution must again be given prominence. In this study of Sonora--a key agricultural state in northwestern Mexico--Steven E. Sanderson examines in economic and political terms the post-revolutionary rise of agrarian reform and its decline, dividing the sixty years of change (from 1917 to 1976) into three periods. Agrarian populism dominated the first, which he calls a time of post-revolutionary consolidation (1917-1940). Then, during the "miracle years" of 1940-1970, the growing strength of capital and the success of state-led import substitution plans led to a counterreform in agrarian politics. In the final period, that of President Echeverria's populist resurgence (1970-1976), ambitious but flawed agrarian reform plans clashed with the sector that favored the increasing concentration of land, income, and political influence. Sonora provides a particularly interesting view of these developments because of its political and geographical distance from metropolitan Mexico, its rich history of independence, its economic growth since the revolution, and the political sophistication of its residents. The events in this state exemplify the regional imbalances, the ideological biases, and the political manipulations contributing to the crisis in state legitimacy that dominated Mexican politics in the 1970s. Using a combination of agrarian census materials, state archives, newspapers, records from relevant ministries, and selected interviews with participants, Sanderson presents the complex history of conflict between the political base supporting agrarian reform and the economic forces advocating industrialization and economic growth. This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press's mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1981.

Mexico S Cold War

Author : Renata Keller
ISBN : 9781107079588
Genre : History
File Size : 42. 95 MB
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This book examines Mexico's unique foreign relations with the US and Cuba during the Cold War.

Twentieth Century Mexico

Author : William Dirk Raat
ISBN : 0803289146
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 71 MB
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The Mexican revolution began in 1910 with high hopes and a multitude of spokesmen clamoring for a better life for ordinary Mexicans. This anthology examines how the revolution brought change and often progress. Women, the landless, the poor, the country folk are among those receiving consideration in the twenty-seven readings, which range from political and economic to social and intellectual history. About half of the selections are previously unpublished. Combining the best new scholarship by modern historians; outstanding work by distinguished Mexicanists of the past; excerpts from mexico's finest fiction, poetry, and commentary; reminiscence; cartoons and illustrations, Twentieth-Century Mexico brilliantly illuminates the Mexican experience from Porfirio D�az to petrodollars. The concluding chapter ties together the strands of twentieth-century Mexican culture to help U.S. readers understand not only Mexico's present situation but also its relations with the Colossus of the North. Like its predecessor, Mexico: From Independence to Revolution (UNP, 1982), this book includes suggestions for further reading and an index.

Radio In Revolution

Author : J. Justin Castro
ISBN : 9780803288744
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 73 MB
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Long before the Arab Spring and its use of social media demonstrated the potent intersection between technology and revolution, the Mexican Revolution employed wireless technology in the form of radiotelegraphy and radio broadcasting to alter the course of the revolution and influence how political leaders reconstituted the government. Radio in Revolution, an innovative study of early radio technologies and the Mexican Revolution, examines the foundational relationship between electronic wireless technologies, single-party rule, and authoritarian practices in Mexican media. J. Justin Castro bridges the Porfiriato and the Mexican Revolution, discussing the technological continuities and change that set the stage for Lázaro Cárdenas’s famous radio decree calling for the expropriation of foreign oil companies. Not only did the nascent development of radio technology represent a major component in government plans for nation and state building, its interplay with state power in Mexico also transformed it into a crucial component of public communication services, national cohesion, military operations, and intelligence gathering. Castro argues that the revolution had far-reaching ramifications for the development of radio and politics in Mexico and reveals how continued security concerns prompted the revolutionary victors to view radio as a threat even while they embraced it as an essential component of maintaining control.

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