polymer-solar-cells

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Stability And Degradation Of Organic And Polymer Solar Cells

Author : Frederik C. Krebs
ISBN : 9781118312230
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50. 32 MB
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Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

Polymeric Solar Cells

Author : Frederik C. Krebs
ISBN : 9781605950174
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 41 MB
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Book offers a comprehensive treatment of nonhybrid polymeric solar cells from the basic chemistry of donor and acceptor materials through device design, processing and manufacture. Written by a team of Europe-based experts, the text shows the steps and strategies of successfully moving from the science of solar cells to commercial device production. Chapters focus on technologies that lead to increased efficiencies, longer usable life and lower costs. Highlighted are ways to fabricate solar cells from a range of polymers and develop them into marketable commodities. Special consideration is given to solar cells as intellectual property.

Polymer Photovoltaics

Author : Fei Huang
ISBN : 9781849739870
Genre :
File Size : 87. 67 MB
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Polymer solar cells have gained much attention as they offer a potentially economic and viable way of commercially manufacturing lightweight, flexible and low-cost photovoltaics. With contributions from leading scientists, Polymer Photovoltaics provides an international perspective on the latest research for this rapidly expanding field. The book starts with an Introduction to polymer solar cells and covers several important topics that govern their photovoltaic properties including the chemistry and the design of new light harvesting and interfacial materials and their structure-property relationship; the physics for photocurrent generation in the polymer solar cells; new characterization tools to study morphology effect on the property of donor/acceptor bulk heterojunctions; new device concepts such as tandem cells and semi-transparent cells and advanced roll-to-roll processes for large-scale manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Written by active researchers, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advancements in polymer solar cell technology for both researchers and students that are interested in this field.

Organic Solar Cells

Author : Barry P. Rand
ISBN : 9789814463669
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 23 MB
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Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have the potential to make a significant contribution to the increasing energy needs of the future. In this book, 15 chapters written by selected experts explore the required characteristics of components present in an OPV device, such as transparent electrodes, electron- and hole-conducting layers, as well as electron donor and acceptor materials. Design, preparation, and evaluation of these materials targeting highest performance are discussed. This includes contributions on modeling down to the molecular level to device-level electrical and optical testing and modeling, as well as layer morphology control and characterization. The integration of the different components in device architectures suitable for mass production is described. Finally, the technical feasibility and economic viability of large-scale manufacturing using fast inexpensive roll-to-roll deposition technologies is assessed.

Organic Solar Cells

Author : Pankaj Kumar
ISBN : 9781315353623
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 48 MB
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This book contains detailed information on the types, structure, fabrication, and characterization of organic solar cells (OSCs). It discusses processes to improve efficiencies and the prevention of degradation in OSCs. It compares the cost-effectiveness of OSCs to those based on crystalline silicon and discusses ways to make OSCs more economical. This book provides a practical guide for the fabrication, processing, and characterization of OSCs and paves the way for further development in OSC technology.

Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:227901407
Genre :
File Size : 75. 75 MB
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This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices. This project will study the possibility to use conjugated polymers as active media in solar cell applications. The potential advantages of conjugated polymers solar cells (CPSC) are: the electronic properties of conjugated polymers can be tuned to match the solar spectrum, the intrinsic absorption index of some conjugated polymers could be higher than silicon for large part of the solar spectrum, large area thin films on flexible substrates could be prepared, and the production cost could be lower than for inorganic solar cells. At the same time, the known disadvantages of CPSC are: free carriers are not excited directly under solar irradiation, the mobility of free charges is low and very different for opposite polarity, low stability of conjugated polymers to oxidation and photo-oxidation. This project will use poly-para-phenylene-vinylene, vacuum deposited poly-para-phenylene and their donor-acceptor complexes to realize the advantages of CPSC and to neutralize their drawbacks. The goals of the project are to find a class of conjugated materials most promising for solar cell applications and then to study CPSC prototypes, which will be optimized for high efficency.

Polymer Solar Cells Molecular Design And Microstructure Control

Author : Kui Zhao
ISBN : 9782889661947
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 23 MB
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A Study On Polymer Solar Cells

Author : Shizhao Zheng
ISBN : OCLC:844720739
Genre : Polymers
File Size : 67. 36 MB
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Polymer Solar Cell

Author : Al-Amiery Ahmed
ISBN : 3659715816
Genre :
File Size : 55. 91 MB
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A solar cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon. It is a type of photoelectric cell, characterized as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic independent of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light. Transforming the solar energy into a more useable energy type is the main objective of the researchers due to the energy of the sunlight cannot be directly utilized in any way. Renewable energy sources are intensely looked for after nowadays, both from an ecological and from a cost point of view. Organic solar cells are considered as a suitable possibility for a large-area, flexible, and more essentially, low-cost energy source.

Improvement Of Polymer Solar Cells Through Device Design

Author : Yechuan Sun
ISBN : 1361292369
Genre :
File Size : 59. 73 MB
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Simulation Of Geometry And Shadow Effects In 3d Organic Polymer Solar Cells

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:845097628
Genre : Electronic books
File Size : 26. 83 MB
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Rising inventory levels of Solar panels and new production capacity is driving solar PV prices lower and thereby, bringing solar energy closer to grid price parity. Major studies have been made in improving solar cell efficiency. A novel approach based on three-dimensional (3D) architecture for polymeric photovoltaic cells made up of an array of sub-micron and nano-pillars which not only increase the area of the light absorbing surface, but also improve the carrier collection efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. This study concentrates on modeling the effect of shading on 3D solar cell by varying arrangements of pillars/electrodes on a 3D organic photovoltaic cell surface. We have developed mathematical model in MATLAB which simulate the shadow effect and characterize the cell geometrically by varying aspect ratio, spacing, size, shape. A Model has been built for several shading profiles to optimize the exposed area on solar cell for different position of sun.

Polymer Photovoltaics

Author : Frederik C. Krebs
ISBN : 9780819467812
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87. 76 MB
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This book is intended to be a practical guide in the laboratory for the experimental solar-cell scientist whether he or she is involved with synthesis, device preparation, processing, or device characterization. Useful to all scientists working practically in the field, the book presents the process of creating a polymer solar-cell device beginning with a description of materials, including how they are made and characterized, followed by how the materials are processed into devices and films, and how these are characterized. From there, the status of two emerging fields of polymer solar cells are described: degradation and stability and large-scale processing.

Flow Enhanced Solution Printing Of All Polymer Solar Cells

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ISBN : OCLC:946824144
Genre :
File Size : 25. 75 MB
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Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a similar to 90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. However, we expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

Improvement Of Polymer Solar Cells Through Device Design

Author : Yechuan Sun
ISBN : OCLC:800243257
Genre : Conducting polymers
File Size : 58. 11 MB
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Nanocarbon Based Polymer Solar Cells

Author : 杜昆樺
ISBN : OCLC:858267457
Genre :
File Size : 70. 59 MB
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Inverted Tandem Polymer Solar Cells

Author : 饒孟桓
ISBN : OCLC:900723209
Genre :
File Size : 25. 13 MB
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Material Design For High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

Author : Huatong Yao
ISBN : OCLC:1122928760
Genre :
File Size : 65. 10 MB
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Polymer Polymer Blends In Organic Photovoltaic And Photodiode Devices

Author : Yuxin Xia
ISBN : 9789176851463
Genre :
File Size : 74. 12 MB
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Organic photovoltaics devices (OPV) have attracted attentions of scientist for their potential as inexpensive, lightweight, flexible and suitable for roll-to-roll production. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on new acceptor materials, either polymeric or small molecules, to replace the once dominating fullerene derivatives. The emergence of numerous new non-fullerene materials has driven power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 17%, attracting more and more interests of commercialization. Polymer acceptors with more morphology stability, more absorption and more desired energy levels has been intensively studied and show great potential for large area and low-cost production in the future. OPV at this moment is not yet competitive with inorganic solar cells in PCE but is more attractive in flexibility, low weight and semitransparency. In this thesis, some basic knowledges of OPV is introduced in the first few chapters, while the next chapters are focusing on polymer-polymer blends and investigating novel structures and techniques for large scale production of solar cells and photodetectors aiming at maximizing these advantages to compete with inorganic counterpart. Thermal annealing effects on polymer-polymer solar cells based is studied. Annealed devices show doubled power conversion efficiency compared to non-annealed devices. Based on the morphology—mobility examination, we conclude that the better charge transport is achieved by higher order and better interconnected networks of the bulk heterojunction in the annealed active layers. The annealing improves charge transport and extends the conjugation length of the polymers, which do help charge generation and meanwhile reduce recombination. The blend of an amorphous polymer and a semi-crystalline polymer can thus be modified by thermal annealing to double the power conversion efficiency. A novel concept of all-polymer organic photovoltaics device is demonstrated in this thesis where all the layers are made out of polymers. We use PEDOT:PSS as semitransparent anode and polyethyleneimine modified PEDOT:PSS as semitransparent cathode, both of which are slot-die printed on polyethylene terephthalate(PET). Active layers are deposited on cathode and anode surfaces by spin coating separately. These layers are then joined through a roll-to-roll compatible lamination process. This forms a semitransparent and flexible solar cell. By laminating a thin layer acceptor polymer to a thick polymer-polymer blend, we can further improve the performance by reducing traps comparing to laminating blend to blend. Flexible and semitransparent all-polymer photodiodes with different geometries can be fabricated through lamination. By choosing high band gap polymers and appropriate combination of two or more polymers, organic photodiode with low noise and high specific detectivity can be obtained. Comparison between bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices gives better understanding of the origin of noise and provides ways to improve the performance of photodiodes as detector. Noise level is a critical parameter for photodetectors. The difficulties of measuring the noise of photodetectors make some researchers prefer the estimated shot noise as the dominating one and ignore the thermal noise and 1/f noise. The latter two terms are sometimes several orders higher than the former, noting the importance of experimentally measuring noise. The use of semi-transparent photovoltaic devices causes an inevitable loss of photocurrent, as light transmitted has not been absorbed. This trivial effect also leads to a loss of photovoltage, an effect partially due to the lower photocurrent but also due to the geometry of the semitransparent photovoltaic device. We here demonstrate and evaluate this photovoltage loss in semi-transparent organic photovoltaic devices, compared with non-transparent solar cells of the same material. Semi-transparent solar cells in addition introduce photovoltage loss when formed by lamination. We document and analyze these effects for a number of polymer blends in the form of bulk heterojunctions.

Inverted All Polymer Solar Cells

Author : Karl-Philipp Strunk
ISBN : OCLC:868339207
Genre :
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Coating And Drying Processes For Functional Films In Polymer Solar Cells From Laboratory To Pilot Scale

Author : Wengeler, Lukas
ISBN : 9783731502012
Genre :
File Size : 64. 94 MB
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