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Physiological Ecology Of The Alpine Timberline

Author : Walter Tranquillini
ISBN : MINN:31951T00249348O
Genre : Science
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References:p.119-132.

Physiological Ecology Of The Alpine Timberline

Author : W. Tranquillini
ISBN : 9783642671074
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 94 MB
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In the European Alps the importance of forests as protection against ava lanches and soil erosion is becoming ever clearer with the continuing increase in population and development of tourism. The protective potential of the moun tain forests can currently only be partially realised because a considerable propor tion of high-altitude stands has been destroyed in historical times by man's extensive clearing ofthe forests. The forests still remaining are of limited effec tiveness, due to inadequate density of trees and over-maturity. Considerable efforts, however, are now being made in the Alps and other mountains of the globe to increase the high-altitude forested area through reforestation, to raise depressed timberlines, and to restore remaining protection forests using suit able silvicultural methods to their full protective value. This momentous task, if it is to be successful, must be planned on a sound foundation. An important prerequisite is the assembly of scientific facts con cerning the physical environment in the protection forest zone of mountains, and the course of various life processes of tree species occurring there. Since the introduction of practical field techniques it has been possible to investigate successfully the reaction of trees at various altitudes to recorded factors, and the extent to which they are adapted to the measured situations. Such ecophysio logical studies enable us to recognize the site requirements for individual tree species, and the reasons for the limits of their natural distribution.

Trees At Their Upper Limit

Author : Gerhard Wieser
ISBN : 9781402050749
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 1 MB
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The product of decades of intensive research into alpine timberlines, this book presents a complete synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of tree growth and survival on high mountains in Europe. Amid growing realization that high elevation forests have a crucial role to play in protection against natural hazards, this book sets a new standard for research on the ecophysiology of trees growing at the alpine timberline.

Forest Development In Cold Climates

Author : John Alden
ISBN : 9781489916006
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 37 MB
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As forests decline in temperate and tropical climates, highly-developed countries and those striving for greater economic and social benefits are beginning to utilize marginal forests of high-latitude and mountainous regions for resources to satisfy human needs. The benefits of marginal forests range from purely aesthetic to providing resources for producing many goods and services demanded by a growing world population. Increased demands for forest resources and amenities and recent warming of high latitude climates have generated interest in reforestation and afforestation of marginal habitats in cold regions. Afforestation of treeless landscapes improves the environment for human habitation and provides for land use and economic prosperity. Trees are frequently planted in cold climates to rehabilitate denuded sites, for the amenity of homes and villages, and for wind shelter, recreation, agroforestry, and industrial uses. In addition, forests in cold climates reduce the albedo of the earth's surface in winter, and in summer they are small but significant long-lived sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Finally, growth and reproductive success of forests at their geographic limits are sensitive indices of climatic change. As efforts to adapt forests to cold climates increase, however, new afforestation problems arise and old ones intensify. Austral, northern, and altitudinal tree limits are determined by many different factors. Current hypotheses for high-latitude tree limits are based on low growing-season temperatures that inhibit plant development and reproduction.

Physiological Ecology Of North American Plant Communities

Author : Brain F. Chabot
ISBN : 9789400948303
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 61 MB
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Although, as W.D. Billings notes in his chapter in this book. the development of physiological ecology can be traced back to the very beginnings of the study of ecology it is clear that the modern development of this field in North America is due in the large part to the efforts of Billings alone. The foundation that Billings laid in the late 1950s came from his own studies on deserts and subsequently arctic and alpine plants, and also from his enormous success in instilling enthusiasm for the field in the numerous students attracted to the plant ecology program at Duke University. Billings' own studies provided the model for subsequent work in this field. Physiological techniques. normally confined to the laboratory. were brought into the field to examine processes under natural environmental conditions. These field studies were accompanied by experiments under controlled conditions where the relative impact of various factors could be assessed and further where genetic as opposed to environmental influences could be separated. This blending of field and laboratory approaches promoted the design of experiments which were of direct relevance to understanding the distribution and abundance of plants in nature. Physiological mechanisms were studied and assessed in the context of the functioning of plants under natural conditions rather than as an end in itself.

The Physiological Ecology Of Woody Plants

Author : Theodore T. Kozlowski
ISBN : 9780323138000
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 33 MB
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The efficient management of trees and other woody plants can be improved given an understanding of the physiological processes that control growth, the complex environmental factors that influence those processes, and our ability to regulate and maintain environmental conditions that facilitate growth. Emphasizes genetic and environmental interactions that influence woody plant growth Outlines responses of individual trees and tree communities to environmental stress Explores cultural practices useful for efficient management of shade, forest, and fruit trees, woody vines, and shrubs

Applications Of Physiological Ecology To Forest Management

Author : J. J. Landsberg
ISBN : 0080527388
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 44 MB
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Forest management is a complex process that now incorporates information obtained from many sources. It is increasingly obvious that the physiological status of the trees in a forest has a dramatic impact on the likely success of any particular management strategy. Indeed, models described in this book that deal with forest productivity and sustainability require physiological information. This information can only be obtained from an understanding of the basic biological mechanisms and processes that contribute to individual tree growth. This valuable book illustrates that physiological ecology is a fundamental element of proficient forest management. Provides essential information relevant to the continuing debate over sustainable forest management Outlines how modern tools for physiological ecology can be used in planning and managing forest ecosystems Reviews the most commonly used forest models and assesses their value and future

Alpine And Polar Treelines In A Changing Environment

Author : Gerhard Wieser
ISBN : 9783039286300
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 56 MB
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Concerns have been raised with respect to the state of high-altitude and high-latitude treelines, as they are anticipated to undergo considerable modifications due to global changes, and especially due to climate warming. As high-elevation treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, they are considered to be sensitive to climate warming. As a consequence, in this future, warmer environment, an upward migration of treelines is expected because low air and root-zone temperatures constrain their regeneration and growth. Despite the ubiquity of climate warming, treeline advancement is not a worldwide phenomenon: some treelines have been advancing rapidly, others have responded sluggishly or have remained stable. This variation in responses is attributed to the potential interaction of a continuum of site-related factors that may lead to the occurrence of locally conditioned temperature patterns. Competition amongst species and below-ground resources have been suggested as additional factors explaining the variability in the movement of treelines. This Special Issue (book) is dedicated to the discussion of treeline responses to changing environmental conditions in different areas around the globe.

Alpine Plant Life

Author : Christian Körner
ISBN : 9783030595388
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 47 MB
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This book is a completely revised, substantially extended treatment of the physical and biological factors that drive life in high mountains. The book covers the characteristics of alpine plant life, alpine climate and soils, life under snow, stress tolerance, treeline ecology, plant water, carbon, and nutrient relations, plant growth and productivity, developmental processes, and two largely novel chapters on alpine plant reproduction and global change biology. The book explains why the topography driven exposure of plants to dramatic micro-climatic gradients over very short distances causes alpine biodiversity to be particularly robust against climatic change. Geographically, this book draws on examples from all parts of the world, including the tropics. This book is complemented with novel evidence and insight that emerged over the last 17 years of alpine plant research. The number of figures – mostly in color – nearly doubled, with many photographs providing a vivid impression of alpine plant life worldwide. Christian Körner was born in 1949 in Austria, received his academic education at the University of Innsbruck, and was full professor of Botany at the University of Basel from 1989 to 2014. As emeritus Professor he is continuing alpine plant research in the Swiss Alps.

The Plant Geography Of Korea

Author : Kong Woo-Seok
ISBN : 9789401116244
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 18 MB
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This is the first detailed analysis of the complex and rich vegetation of the mountainous Korean peninsula, which ranges from arctic-alpine to subtropical in character, and in which more than 4500 vascular-plant species have been recorded, including many endemics. It covers both the north and south of the peninsula and, using both past and present records, identifies eight major biogeographic regions. It pays due attention to vegetation history, tracing this back to Miocene times and noting the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. More recently, detailed climatic variations from 50 B.C. are recorded, along with man's influence on vegetation patterns. Special mention is made of the present arctic-alpine communities, their structural and floristic characteristics, their origins, and their vulnerability to current global warming. Throughout the relationships between Korean vegetation communities and those present in adjacent East Asia are emphasized along with those key features which make Korean communities distinctly unique.

Ecological Systems Of The Geobiosphere

Author : Heinrich Walter
ISBN : 9783642701603
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 13 MB
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By the end of the last century, the only region in all of Europe where the natural vegetation remained untouched over large expanses was Eastern Europe. Information on the vegetation of this region however, remained mostly unavailable to western scientists although the ecological approach to botanical research originated in Eastern Europe. Heinrich Walter was born in Russia, studied Natural Sciences - with emphasis on botany - in Odessa and is familiar with all relevant Russian literature on ecology. This volume thus offers scientists worldwide a unique and comprehensive survey of all relevant research, including the mostly unknown literature published in Russian.

Ecosystem Ecology

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
ISBN : 0444534679
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 81 MB
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Jorgensen's Ecosystem Ecology provides a thorough and comprehensive overview of the world’s aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This derivative volume based on the best-selling Encyclopedia of Ecology (published 2008) is the only book currently published that provides an overview of the world’s ecosystems in a concise format. Provides an overview of the world’s ecosystems in a concise format Covers aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Based on the best-selling Encyclopedia of Ecology Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding

Mountain Timberlines

Author : Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier
ISBN : 9781402097058
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 85 MB
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For more than 40 years I have been engaged in timberline research. Thus, one could suppose that writing this book should not have been too difficult. It was harder, however, than expected, and in the end I felt that more questions had arisen than could be answered within its pages. Perhaps it would have been easier to write the book 30 years ago and then leave the subject to mature. Lastly it was the late Prof. Heinz Ellenberg who had convinced me to portray a much needed and complete picture of what we know of the timberline with special respect to its great physiognomic, structural and ecological variety. The first version of this book was p- lished in the German language (Holtmeier, 2000). Nevertheless, I was very delighted when Prof. Martin Beniston encouraged me to prepare an English edition for the series ‘Advances in Global Change Research’, which guaranteed a wider circulation. Timberline is a worldwide and very heterogeneous phenomenon, which can only be presented by way of examples. My own field experience is necessarily limited to certain timberline areas, such as the Alps, northern Scandinavia, northern Finland and many high mountain ranges in the western United States and Canada. However, my own observations and the results of my and my previous collaborators research were essential for developing the concept of the book and became integrated into the picture of timberline that is presented in the following chapters.

Advances In Ecological Research

Author :
ISBN : 0080567045
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 78 MB
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Volume 20 of this series deals with a variety of plant and animal ecology topics.**Despite much recent work on herbivory, little attention has been given to insect herbivores active below ground. Brown and Gange describe the ecological adaptations of insects to this abundant but poor quality food resource, and the responses of plants to this potentially very damaging grazing pressure.**Plants living at high altitude must be able to cope with extreme climatic conditions, low carbon dioxide levels, and high radiation doses. Friend and Woodward describe these adaptations and discuss the degree to which they are genetically determined or merely the product of physiological plasticity.**Thomas presents a modular concept of ecology in which modules contain a resource and its associated consumers, and goes on to examine the general principles which may reflect the various mutualisms between organisms in some example fresh water modular systems.**Finally, West examines the microphytic soil crusts of arid and semi-arid soils. Although information on them is currently limited, they are likely to be important in some ecosystems.

Landscape Boundaries

Author : Andrew J. Hansen
ISBN : 9781461228042
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45. 13 MB
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The emergence of landscape ecology during the 1980s represents an impor tant maturation of ecological theory. Once enamored with the conceptual beauty of well-balanced, homogeneous ecosystems, ecologists now assert that much of the essence of ecological systems lies in their lumpiness. Patches with differing properties and behaviors lie strewn across the land scape, products of the complex interactions of climate, disturbance, and biotic processes. It is the collective behavior of this patchwork of eco systems that drives pattern and process of the landscape. is not an end point This realization of the importance of patch dynamics in itself, however. Rather, it is a passage to a new conceptual framework, the internal workings of which remain obscure. The next tier of questions includes: What are the fundamental pieces that compose a landscape? How are these pieces bounded? To what extent do these boundaries influence communication and interaction among patches of the landscape? Will con sideration of the interactions among landscape elements help us to under stand the workings of landscapes? At the core of these questions lies the notion of the ecotone, a term with a lineage that even predates ecosystem. Late in the nineteenth century, F. E. Clements realized that the transition zones between plant communi ties had properties distinct from either of the adjacent communities. Not until the emergence of patch dynamics theory, however, has central signif icance of the ecotone concept become apparent.

Encyclopedia Of Ecology

Author :
ISBN : 9780080914565
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 64 MB
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The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication

Perspectives In Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology

Author : Erick De La Barrera
ISBN : 9780578006765
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 90 MB
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Park S. Nobel pioneered the coupling of cellular physical chemistry with plant physiology, providing a sound physicochemical interpretation of the laws of diffusion to a rapidly expanding field of plant physiological ecology. His classical textbook is the only one of its kind to provide an extensive array of quantitative problems and solutions in the field of plant biophysics and ecophysiology, extending from the molecular to the ecological level. In this festschrift, former graduate students and postdocs, as well as colleagues of Prof. Nobel present a series of reviews that include scales from sub-cellular to global, and topics that range from desert succulent biology to the physiology of alpine plants, encompassing basic research and applications in agronomy and conservation biology. This state-of-the-field survey provides current and useful information for professionals and graduate students, while illustrating the broad span of the influence that Nobel's career has had on modern ecophysiology.

Environmental Physiology Of Plants

Author : Alastair H. Fitter
ISBN : 9780080549811
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 57 MB
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This is the third edition of an established and successful university textbook. The original structure and philosophy of the book continue in this new edition, providing a genuine synthesis of modern ecological and physiological thinking, while entirely updating the detailed content. New features include a fresh, unified treatment of toxicity, emphasizing common features of plant response to ionic, gaseous, and other toxins, explicit treatment of issues relating to global change, and a section on the role of fire in plant physiology and communities. The illustrations in the text are improved over previous editions, including color plates for the first time, and the authors' continuing commitment to providing wide citation of the relevant literature has further improved the reference list. This revision of Environmental Physiology of Plants will ensure the reputation of this title as a useful and relevant text well into the 21st century. Includes enhanced illustrations, now with color plates Examines new molecular approaches which can be harnessed to solve problems in physiology Features new topics such as the unified treatment of toxicity, an explicit treatment of the issues relating to global change, and a section on the role of fire

Physiological Plant Ecology

Author : Walter Larcher
ISBN : 3540435166
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 98 MB
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With contributions by numerous experts.

Mountain Geography

Author : Martin F. Price
ISBN : 9780520254312
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 74 MB
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Mountain Geography is a comprehensive resource that gives readers an in-depth understanding of the geographical processes that occur in the world's mountains and the impact of these regions on culture and society. The volume begins with an introduction that defines mountains, followed by a comprehensive treatment of their physical geography, including origins, climatology, snow and ice, landforms and geomorphic processes, soils, vegetation, and wildlife. The concluding chapters discuss the human geography of mountains and our attitudes toward them, populations in the mountain regions and their livelihoods and interactions within dynamic environments, the diversity of mountain agriculture, and the challenges of sustainable mountain development. -- Book Jacket.

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