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Philosophical Issues In Aristotle S Biology

Author : Associate Professor of Philosophy Allan Gotthelf
ISBN : 0521310911
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78. 29 MB
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An overview of biology and philosophy is followed by three sections on individual issues definition and demonstration, teleology and necessity in nature, and metaphysical themes.

Philosophical Biology In Aristotle S Parts Of Animals

Author : Jason A. Tipton
ISBN : 9783319014210
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 45. 12 MB
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This book provides a detailed analysis of Aristotle’s Parts of Animals. It presents the wealth of information provided in the biological works of Aristotle and revisits the detailed natural history observations that inform, and in many ways penetrate, the philosophical argument. It raises the question of how easy it is to clearly distinguish between what some might describe as “merely” biological and the philosophical. It explores the notion and consequences of describing the activity in which Aristotle is engaged as philosophical biology. The book examines such questions as: do readers of Aristotle have in mind organisms like Ascidians or Holothurians when trying to understand Aristotle’s argument regarding plant-like animals? Do they need the phenomena in front of them to understand the terms of the philosophical argument in a richer way? The discussion of plant-like animals is important in Aristotle because of the question about the continuum between plant and animal life. Where does Aristotle draw the line? Plant-like animals bring this question into focus and demonstrate the indeterminacy of any potential solution to the division. This analysis of Parts of Animals shows that the study of the nature of the organic world was Aristotle’s way into such ontological problems as the relationship between matter and form, or form and function, or the heterogeneity of the many different kinds of being.​

Aristotle S Philosophy Of Biology

Author : James G. Lennox
ISBN : 0521659760
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 11 MB
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The papers collected in this 2001 volume focus on Aristotle's systematic investigation of animals.

Methods And Problems In Greek Science

Author : G. E. R. Lloyd
ISBN : 0521397626
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 90. 58 MB
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The study of ancient science and its relations with Greek philosophy has made a significant and growing contribution to our understanding of ancient thought and civilisation. This collection of articles on Greek science contains fifteen of the most important papers published by G. E. R. Lloyd in this area since 1961, together with three unpublished articles. The topics range over all areas and periods of Greek science, including astronomy, cosmology, biology and medicine from the earliest Presocratic philosophers to Ptolemy and Galen. Several focus on important methodological problems: others on the social background to Greek science, on the motivations of ancient Greek scientists, their aims and the implicit assumptions that influenced their work. In each case the article is preceded by an introduction that assesses scholarly debate on the topic since the original publication. Professor Lloyd also suggests modifications and developments to his own position in the light of those debates and his own further research.

A Companion To The Philosophy Of Biology

Author : Sahotra Sarkar
ISBN : 9781444337853
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 45 MB
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A COMPANION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY “Sarkar is to be congratulated for assembling this talented team of philosophers, who are themselves to be congratulated for writing these interesting essays on so many fascinating areas in philosophy of biology. This book will be a wonderful resource for future work.” Elliot Sober, University of Wisconsin-Madison “Many of the discussions here start with a definition of terms and a historical context of the subject before delving into the deeper philosophical issues, making it a useful reference for students of biology as well as philosophy.” Northeastern Naturalist “The topics that are addressed are done so well. This book will appeal to the advanced student and knowledgeable amateur and may prove useful catalyst for discussion among research teams or those engaged in cross-disciplinary studies.” Reference Reviews A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by all areas of biology. Addressing both traditional and emerging areas of philosophical interest, the volume focuses on the philosophical implications of evolutionary theory as well as key topics such as molecular biology, immunology, and ecology Comprising essays by top scholars in the field, this volume is an authoritative guide for professional philosophers, historians, sociologists and biologists, as well as an accessible reference work for students seeking to learn about this rapidly-changing field.

The Cambridge Companion To Aristotle S Biology

Author : Sophia M. Connell
ISBN : 9781108187237
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65. 83 MB
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Aristotle's voluminous writings on animals have often been marginalised in the history of philosophy. Providing the first full-length comprehensive account of Aristotle's biology, its background, content and influence, this Companion situates his study of living nature within his broader philosophy and theology and differentiates it from other medical and philosophical theories. An overview of empiricism in Aristotle's Historia Animalium is followed by an account of the general methodology recommended in the Parts of Animals. An account of the importance of Aristotle's teleological perspective and the fundamental metaphysics of biological entities provides a basis for understanding living capacities, such as nutrition, reproduction, perception and self-motion, in his philosophy. The importance of Aristotle's zoology to both his ethics and political philosophy is highlighted. The volume explores in detail the changing interpretations and influences of Aristotle's biological works from antiquity to modern philosophy of science. It is essential for both students and scholars.

Teleology First Principles And Scientific Method In Aristotle S Biology

Author : Allan Gotthelf
ISBN : 9780199287956
Genre : History
File Size : 73. 2 MB
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This volume draws together Allan Gotthelf's pioneering work on Aristotle's biology. He examines Aristotle's natural teleology, the axiomatic structure of biological explanation, and the reliance on scientifically organized data in the three great works with which Aristotle laid the foundations of biological science.

Postmodern Aristotle

Author : Alfredo Marcos
ISBN : 9781443845632
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 77. 75 MB
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The modern world was in part born as a reaction against Aristotelianism. However, the image of Aristotle to which modern philosophers reacted was partial, to say the least. Paradoxical though it may seem, today, more than twenty-three centuries on, we may now be in the most advantageous position for understanding the Stagirite’s philosophy and applying it to contemporary problems. The present book contributes to the forming of an idea of Post-modern reason inspired by a constellation of Aristotelian concepts, such as prudence (phronesis), practical truth (aletheia praktike), science in act (episteme en energeiai), metaphor (metaphora), similarity (homoiosis) and the imitation-creation pair (mimesis-poiesis). They all form an interconnected network and together they make up an idea of reason that may prove suitable for the present. These concepts offer the most promising basis for undertaking a series of urgent reconciliations: of facts and values, of means and ends, of theoretical and practical reason, of intelligence and emotion. Aristotle’s notions could help solve many dualisms of modern times. He offers a third way between identity and difference in ontology and politics, between algorithm and anarchism in methodology, between naïve realism and plain relativism in epistemology, between equivocity and univocity in language, between Enlightenment and Romanticism in culture… On the way, this shift facilitates the relationships between science, arts and ethics – the three parts of the sphere of culture which Modernity had separated – as well as the integration of the sphere of culture itself with the world of life.

The Oxford Handbook Of Aristotle

Author : Christopher Shields
ISBN : 9780199938438
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 77. 64 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle reflects the lively international character of Aristotelian studies, drawing contributors from the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Canada, and Japan; it also, appropriately, includes a preponderance of authors from the University of Oxford, which has been a center of Aristotelian studies for many centuries. The volume equally reflects the broad range of activity Aristotelian studies comprise today: such activity ranges from the primarily textual and philological to the application of broadly Aristotelian themes to contemporary problems irrespective of their narrow textual fidelity. In between these extremes one finds the core of Aristotelian scholarship as it is practiced today, and as it is primarily represented in this Handbook: textual exegesis and criticism. Even within this more limited core activity, one witnesses a rich range of pursuits, with some scholars seeking primarily to understand Aristotle in his own philosophical milieu and others seeking rather to place him into direct conversation with contemporary philosophers and their present-day concerns. No one of these enterprises exhausts the field. On the contrary, one of the most welcome and enlivening features of the contemporary Aristotelian scene is precisely the cross-fertilization these mutually beneficial and complementary activities offer one another. The volume, prefaced with an introduction to Aristotle's life and works by the editor, covers the main areas of Aristotelian philosophy and intellectual enquiry: ethics, metaphysics, politics, logic, language, psychology, rhetoric, poetics, theology, physical and biological investigation, and philosophical method. It also, and distinctively, looks both backwards and forwards: two chapters recount Aristotle's treatment of earlier philosophers, who proved formative to his own orientations and methods, and another three chapters chart the long afterlife of Aristotle's philosophy, in Late Antiquity, in the Islamic World, and in the Latin West.

Organisms And Personal Identity

Author : A.M. Ferner
ISBN : 9781317245704
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 42 MB
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Over his philosophical career, David Wiggins has produced a body of work that, though varied and wide-ranging, stands as a coherent and carefully integrated whole. In this book Ferner examines Wiggins’ conceptualist-realism, his sortal theory ‘D’ and his human being theory in order to assess how far these elements of his systematic metaphysics connect. In addition to rectifying misinterpretations and analysing the relations between Wiggins’ works, Ferner reveals the importance of the philosophy of biology to Wiggins’ approach. This book elucidates the biological anti-reductionism present in Wiggins’ work and highlights how this stance stands as a productive alternative to emergentism. With an analysis of Wiggins’ construal of substances, specifically organisms, the book goes on to discuss how Wiggins brings together the concept of a person with the concept of a natural substance, or human being. An extensive introduction to the work of David Wiggins, as well as a contribution to the dialogue between personal identity theorists and philosophers of biology, this book will appeal to students and scholars working in the areas of philosophy, biology and the history of Anglophone metaphysics.

Bridging The Gap Between Aristotle S Science And Ethics

Author : Devin Henry
ISBN : 9781316298176
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 22. 93 MB
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This book consolidates emerging research on Aristotle's science and ethics in order to explore the extent to which the concepts, methods, and practices he developed for scientific inquiry and explanation are used to investigate moral phenomena. Each chapter shows, in a different way, that Aristotle's ethics is much more like a science than it is typically represented. The upshot of this is twofold. First, uncovering the links between Aristotle's science and ethics promises to open up new and innovative directions for research into his moral philosophy. Second, showing why Aristotle thinks ethics can never be fully assimilated to the model of science will help shed new light on his views about the limits of science. The volume thus promises to make a significant contribution to our understanding of the epistemological, metaphysical, and psychological foundations of Aristotle's ethics.

Cosmology And Biology In Ancient Philosophy

Author : Ricardo Salles
ISBN : 9781108872102
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 70. 31 MB
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In antiquity living beings are inextricably linked to the cosmos as a whole. Ancient biology and cosmology depend upon one another and therefore a complete understanding of one requires a full account of the other. This volume addresses many philosophical issues that arise from this double relation. Does the cosmos have a soul of its own? Why? Is either of these two disciplines more basic than the other, or are they at the same explanatory level? What is the relationship between living things and the cosmos as a whole? If the cosmos is an animate intelligent being, what is the nature of its thoughts and actions? How do these relate to our own thoughts and actions? Do they pose a threat to our autonomy as subjects and agents? And what is the place of zoogony in cosmogony? A distinguished international team of contributors provides original essays discussing these questions.

Oxford Studies In Ancient Philosophy Volume 39

Author : Brad Inwood
ISBN : 9780191615818
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 41. 15 MB
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Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy is a volume of original articles on all aspects of ancient philosophy. The articles may be of substantial length, and include critical notices of major books. OSAP is now published twice yearly, in both hardback and paperback. 'The serial Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy (OSAP) is fairly regarded as the leading venue for publication in ancient philosophy. It is where one looks to find the state-of-the-art. That the serial, which presents itself more as an anthology than as a journal, has traditionally allowed space for lengthier studies, has tended only to add to its prestige; it is as if OSAP thus declares that, since it allows as much space as the merits of the subject require, it can be more entirely devoted to the best and most serious scholarship.' Michael Pakaluk, Bryn Mawr Classical Review

Bringing Biology To Life

Author : Mahesh Ananth
ISBN : 9781460405376
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61. 19 MB
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Bringing Biology to Lifeis a guided tour of the philosophy of biology, canvassing three broad areas: the early history of biology, from Aristotle to Darwin; traditional debates regarding species, function, and units of selection; and recent efforts to better understand the human condition in light of evolutionary biology. Topics are addressed using no more technical jargon than necessary, and without presupposing any advanced knowledge of biology or the philosophy of science on the part of the reader. Discussion questions are also provided to encourage reader reflection.

Aristotle On Substance

Author : Mary Louise Gill
ISBN : 9780691222219
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 26. 28 MB
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This book explores a fundamental tension in Aristotle's metaphysics: how can an entity such as a living organisma composite generated through the imposition of form on preexisting matterhave the conceptual unity that Aristotle demands of primary substances? Mary Louise Gill bases her treatment of the problem of unity, and of Aristotle's solution, on a fresh interpretation of the relation between matter and form. Challenging the traditional understanding of Aristotelian matter, she argues that material substances are subverted by matter and maintained by form that controls the matter to serve a positive end. The unity of material substances thus involves a dynamic relation between resistant materials and directive ends. Aristotle on Substance offers both a general account of matter, form, and substantial unity and a specific assessment of particular Aristotelian arguments. At every point, Gill engages Aristotle on his own philosophical ground through the detailed analysis of central, and often controversial, texts from the Metaphysics, Physics, On Generation and Corruption, De Anima, De Caelo, and the biological works. The result is a coherent, firmly grounded rethinking of Aristotle's central metaphysical concepts and of his struggle toward a fully consistent theory of material substances.

The Oxford Handbook Of Philosophy Of Biology

Author : Michael Ruse
ISBN : 9780195182057
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 70. 24 MB
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This handbook covers the history of philosophy of biology then moves on to evolutionary theory. It continues with discussions of molecular biology and ecology, and covers biology and ethics as well as biology and religion.

Oxford Studies In Ancient Philosophy Volume 51

Author : Victor Caston
ISBN : 9780198795797
Genre : History
File Size : 31. 5 MB
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Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy is a volume of original articles on all aspects of ancient philosophy. The articles may be of substantial length, and include critical notices of major books. OSAP is now published twice yearly, in both hardback and paperback. "'Have you seen the latest OSAP?' is what scholars of ancient philosophy say to each other when they meet in corridors or on coffee breaks. Whether you work on Plato or Aristotle, on Presocratics or sophists, on Stoics, Epicureans, or Sceptics, on Roman philosophers or Greek Neoplatonists, you are liable to find OSAP articles now dominant in the bibliography of much serious published work in your particular subject: not safe to miss." - Malcolm Schofield, Cambridge University "OSAP was founded to provide a place for long pieces on major issues in ancient philosophy. In the years since, it has fulfilled this role with great success, over and over again publishing groundbreaking papers on what seemed to be familiar topics and others surveying new ground to break. It represents brilliantly the vigour--and the increasingly broad scope--of scholarship in ancient philosophy, and shows us all how the subject should flourish." - M.M. McCabe, King's College London

Definition In Greek Philosophy

Author : David Charles
ISBN : 9780199564453
Genre : History
File Size : 41. 96 MB
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David Charles presents fourteen new essays by leading experts on the topic of definition in Greek philosophers from Socrates to Plotinus. It is the first book on the topic for many years and it aims to reawaken interest in this fundamental, but surprisingly neglected, area of ancient philosophy.

Aristotle S >generation Of Animals<

Author : Sabine Föllinger
ISBN : 9783110762112
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 41. 45 MB
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Aristotle’s work "On Generation of Animals" is fascinating. By integrating empirical facts into contexts of justification and by explaining reproduction in the framework of his general theory Aristotle wrote a biological ‘masterpiece’. At the same time it raises many issues because due to the difficulty of the subject under investigation (for example, the egg-cell had not yet been discovered) the theory is complex and often speculative. The contributions in this volume resulting from a conference held in Marburg in 2018 study the challenging writing from various perspectives. They examine the structure of the work, the method and the manner of writing, its relation to other writings, and its scientific context. By investigating the underlying philosophical concepts and their relation to the empirical research offered in "On Generation of Animals" the contributions also try to solve puzzles which Aristotle’s explanation of the role of male and female offers as well as his idea of embryogenesis. An outlook for the history of reception rounds off the volume.

Aristotle S Anthropology

Author : Geert Keil
ISBN : 9781107192690
Genre : History
File Size : 46. 78 MB
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The first collection of essays on Aristotle's philosophy of human nature, covering the metaphysical, biological and ethical works.

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