naturalistic-decision-making

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Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Caroline E. Zsambok
ISBN : 080581874X
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 22. 91 MB
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"Put simply, NDM is the way people use their experience to make decisions in the context of a job or task. Of particular interest to NDM researchers are the effects of high-stake consequences, shifting goal, incomplete information, time pressure, uncertainty, and other conditions that are present in most of today's workplaces and that add to the complexity of decision making. Comppared to more traditional decision research, NDM researchers are more emphatic about studying experienced people either in actual environments or in simulations that preserve contextual dynamics described here. Applications of NDM research target decision aids and training that help people in their decision making process."--Publisher.

Naturalistic Decision Making And Macrocognition

Author : Laura Militello
ISBN : 9781317089582
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 77 MB
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This book presents the latest work in the area of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and its extension into the area of macrocognition. It contains 18 chapters relating research centered on the study of expertise in naturalistic settings, written by international experts in NDM and cognitive systems engineering. The objective of the book is to present the reader with exciting new developments in this field of research, which is characterized by its application-oriented focus. The work addresses only real-world problems and issues. For instance, how do multi-national teams collaborate effectively? How can surgeons best be supported by technology? How do detectives make sense of complex criminal cases? In all instances the studies have been carried out on experts within their respective domains. The traditional field of NDM is extended in this work by focusing on macrocognitive functions other than decision making, namely sense-making, coordination and planning. This has broadened the scope of the field. The book also contains a theoretical discussion of the macro-micro distinction. Naturalistic Decision Making and Macrocognition will be relevant to graduate students, researchers and professionals (including professionals and researchers in business, industry and government) who are interested in decision making, expertise, training methods and system design. The material may be used in two ways: theoretically, to advance understanding of the field of naturalistic decision making; and practically, to gain insight into how experts in various domains solve particular problems, understand and deal with issues and collaborate with others.

Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Caroline E. Zsambok
ISBN : 9781317779605
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71. 22 MB
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If you aren't using the term naturalistic decision making, or NDM, you soon will be. Even as a very young field, NDM has already had far-reaching applications in areas as diverse as management, aviation, health care, nuclear power, military command and control, corporate teamwork, and manufacturing. Put simply, NDM is the way people use their experience to make decisions in the context of a job or task. Of particular interest to NDM researchers are the effects of high-stake consequences, shifting goals, incomplete information, time pressure, uncertainty, and other conditions that are present in most of today's work places and that add to the complexity of decision making. Applications of NDM research findings target decision aids and training that help people in their decision-making processes. This book reports the findings of top NDM researchers, as well as many of their current applications. In addition, the book offers a historical perspective on the emergence of this new paradigm, describes recent theoretical and methodological advancements, and points to future developments. It was written for people interested in decision making research and applications relative to a diverse array of work settings and products such as human-computer interfaces, decision support systems, individual and team training, product designs, and organizational development and planning.

Linking Expertise And Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Eduardo Salas
ISBN : 9781135659912
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 21. 36 MB
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This book contains selected papers presented at the 1998 conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM). The objectives of the conference were to: *make American researchers more aware of NDM research being conducted abroad, particularly in Europe; *connect NDM research with work in management and industry, to stretch beyond the military and paramilitary focus; and *formulate a more explicit connection between NDM and expertise. These objectives are reflected in the chapters of this volume.

Special Issue On Naturalistic Decision Making And Organizational Decision Making Exploring The Intersections

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ISBN : OCLC:255546024
Genre :
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How Professionals Make Decisions

Author : Henry Montgomery
ISBN : 9781410611727
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 24. 77 MB
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This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suit

Designing For Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Chrisminder Hare
ISBN : OCLC:1065396023
Genre :
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Expertise Out Of Context

Author : Robert R. Hoffman
ISBN : 9781136679636
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 80. 26 MB
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Researchers have revealed that real expertise, while applied to well-defined tasks with highly circumscribed contexts, often stretches beyond its routine boundaries. For example, a medical doctor may be called upon to diagnose a rare disease or perform emergency surgery outside his or her area of specialization because other experts are not available. Moreover, in some cases, the context for expertise is in a constant state of flux, such that no one case is identical. Expertise Out of Context is a culmination of some of the most insightful studies conducted by researchers in the fields of cognitive systems engineering and naturalistic decision making in the effort to better understand expertise and its development. Born out of the Sixth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, a conference that gathers researchers who study cognition, perception, and reasoning outside of the traditional laboratory, this book is organized in five parts, the first of which provides an overview of the topic and presents varied perspectives. Consequent sections cover how to make sense of things, tools for thinking out of context, how to cope with uncertainty in a changing workplace, and teams operating out of context. As researchers in naturalistic decision making have investigated such areas as the knowledge and decision-making skills of expert firefighters, critical care nurses, military commanders, and aircraft pilots, this volume is of importance to an expansive audience, including individuals in business, government, industry, and society at large.

Training Decision Makers For Complex Environments Implications Of The Naturalistic Decision Making Perspective

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ISBN : OCLC:318689166
Genre :
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Perhaps the most significant contribution of the Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) perspective is that it has forced researchers to reevaluate the assumptions they hold about how people make decisions in "real" environments. A logical extension is to examine the "practical" implications of this theoretical perspective on decision making. In particular, it is of interest to determine how conclusions drawn from the NDM perspective affect the manner in which decision making might be optimized, or at least improved. The purpose of this chapter is to examine NDM-related theorizing from the standpoint of what it implies for how decision makers are trained. It is based largely on the panel discussion devoted to this topic. The panelists included the authors, John Schmitt, Hugh Wood, Raanan Lipshitz, and Jon Fallesen. It became clear from the panel discussion that the panelists were not familiar with any empirical investigations of the effectiveness of NDM-generated training interventions. This conclusion was bolstered by an extensive literature search they conducted for the purpose of identifying studies on this topic. Therefore, this chapter is necessarily analytical in nature. It focuses on generating propositions for training the cognitive aspects of decision making as suggested by the NDM perspective. The chapter discusses the characteristics of effective decision makers, the mechanisms of expert decision making, and the implications of NDM theories for training decision makers.

Decision Modes In Complex Task Environments

Author : Norbert Steigenberger
ISBN : 9781351649858
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73. 12 MB
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Despite intense research on decision-making in action, we still know little about when decision-makers rely on deliberate vs. intuitive decision-making in decision situations under complexity and uncertainty. Building on default-interventionist dual-processing theory, this book studies decision-making modes (deliberate vs. intuitive) in complex task environments contingent on perceived complexity, experience, and decision style preference. We find that relatively inexperienced decision-makers respond to increases in subjective complexity with an increase in deliberation and tend to follow their decision style preference. Experienced decision-makers are less guided by their decision preference and respond to increases in subjective complexity only minimally. This book contributes to a developing stream of research linking decision-making with intra-personal and environmental properties and fosters our understanding of the conditions under which decision-makers rely on intuitive vs. deliberate decision modes. In doing so, we go one step further towards a comprehensive theory of decision-making in action.

Taking Stock Of Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Raanan Lipshitz
ISBN : OCLC:614712335
Genre :
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Decision Making Under Stress

Author : Eduardo Salas
ISBN : 9781351945943
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 89. 55 MB
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In our high technology society, there is a growing demand for a better understanding of decision making in high risk situations in order to improve selection, training and operational performance. Decision Making Under Stress presents a state-of-the-art review of psychological theory, in research and practice, on decision making in high pressure and emergency situations. It focuses on the experienced decision makers who deal with such risks, principally on flight decks, at civil emergencies, in industrial settings and military environments. The 29 chapters cover a wide range of perspectives and applications from aviation, military, industry and the emergency services. The authors, all international invited experts in their field, are based in research centers and universities from Europe, North America and Australia. Their common interest is in the theories and methods of a new research domain called NDM (naturalistic decision making). This volume comprises the edited contributions to the Third International NDM conference, sponsored by the US Army Research Institute and the US Naval Air Warfare Center, which was held in Aberdeen, Scotland in September 1996. The NDM researchers are interested in decision making in situations characterised by high risk, time pressure, uncertain goals, ambiguous information and teamwork. The extent to which the NDM approach can explain and predict human performance in such settings is a central theme, discussed with many practical examples and applications. This book is essential reading for applied psychologists, pilots, emergency commanders, military officers, high hazard managers, safety and emergency response professionals.

Pilot In Command

Author : Paul A. Craig
ISBN : 0071378642
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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A critical how-to guide to cockpit decision-making for every pilot, based on FAA-mandated pilot-in-command authority -- and pilot responsibility for flight safety and operations. Includes essential methods for self-retraining, techniques for maintaining awareness, and advice on improving piloting performance.

Forum On Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Jacques F. Yates
ISBN : OCLC:1106953749
Genre :
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Making Decisions In Natural Environments

Author : Gary A. Klein
ISBN : NWU:35556033475583
Genre : Command of troops
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"This report surveys the field of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and shows its potential for supporting the needs of the U.S. Army. The report is written from the perspective of a researcher who has been active in developing models and methods in this new approach. The objective is to show the value of NDM for helping the Army address current challenges, including its use of information technologies, its need to downsize forces, and a change in its expected missions."--Page iii.

Decision Making In Action

Author : Gary A. Klein
ISBN : 0893919438
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 82. 84 MB
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This book describes the new perspective of naturalistic decision making. The point of departure is how people make decisions in complex, time-pressured, ambiguous, and changing environments. The purpose of this book is to present and elaborate on past models developed to explain this type of decision making. The central philosophy of the book is that classical decision theory has been unproductive since it is so heavily grounded in economics and mathematics. The contributors believe there is little to be learned from laboratory studies about how people actually handle difficult and interesting tasks; therefore, the book presents a critique of classical decision theory. The models of naturalistic decision making described by the contributors were derived to explain the behavior of firefighters, business people, jurors, nuclear power plant operators, and command-and-control officers. The models are unique in that they address the way people use experience to frame situations and adopt courses of action. The models explain the strengths of skilled decision makers. Naturalistic decision research requires the examination of field settings, and a section of the book covers methods for conducting meaningful research outside the laboratory. In addition, since his approach has applied value, the book covers issues of training and decision support systems.

Implications Of The Naturalistic Decision Making Framework For Information Dominance

Author : Gary Klein
ISBN : OCLC:45508428
Genre :
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This report explores the implications of the Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) framework for the domain of Information Dominance, defined as an operational advantage obtained through superior effectiveness of informational activity. NDM is the study of how people use their experience to make decisions in field settings. Expertise was considered at both the individual and the team level of decision making. The report defines the components of expertise and identifies obstacles to the acquisition of Information Dominance. These obstacles include: (1) excessive data, (2) pre-processed data, (3) excessive procedures, (4) performing formal analyses, (5) passive data handling and limited ability for information seeking, and (6) interfaces that obscure the big picture. The danger exists that these obstacles will severely limit the use of expertise at the individual and the team level, and that information technology will result in reduced rather than increased performance. The application of the NDM perspective demonstrates how information technologies can interfere with expertise, and provides assistance in the development of procedures which ensure that information technologies support Information Dominance functions. Directions for future research into the nature of the obstacles are identified.

Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Alicia Rose Thomas
ISBN : OCLC:224196354
Genre :
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Case Based Reasoning For Military Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Ying Zhang
ISBN : OCLC:1064841186
Genre :
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The more experience decision makers have in a particular decision domain, the more likely they are to employ Naturalistic Decision Making. in high tempo command and control military environments it is important that the human commander is in a position to make the appropriate decisions. Experienced human commanders often make decision based on the principles of Naturalistic Decision Making. Our approach employs Case Based Reasoning as a metaphor by ideD:tifying previous cases that match the problem in hand and accordingly provides the decision maker with the appropriate option. Cases based on the sample scenario are represented by vectors. The high dimensionality of data makes adaptation very difficult. Secondly, the interactions between solution parts have significant impact on the complexity of adaptation.

Attribute Value Dynamics In Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Matthew Satterthwaite
ISBN : OCLC:1086267182
Genre :
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"Value is a central concept in the field of Economics: rational decision-makers are said to make choices that maximize value. The subjective value of options has generally been shown to predict choice, such that when making a decision, individuals consistently select the more highly valued option, yet how value is discerned from the multitude of attributes that characterize options remains unclear. Recent work has indicated that individual attributes are processed by distinct brain circuits, and that these processes may be happening on different time courses, potentially leading to more basic or easily processed attributes having a disproportionate influence on decision-making. The work presented in this thesis aims to shed light on the way in which individual attributes are detected and subsequently influence choice, and to provide a starting point for future multi-attribute decision-making paradigms. In Chapter Two, I describe a novel food image stimulus set developed for the study of multi-attribute decision-making. This stimulus set was characterized on both subjective (tastiness, healthiness, aesthetic beauty) and objective (caloric density, macronutrient content, visual salience) attributes, and will be made freely available to other researchers to accelerate progress in the study of naturalistic, value-based decision-making. In Chapter Three, I present a manuscript reporting two experiments. The first aimed to establish the time course of attribute detection for attributes of food varying in complexity: tastiness, healthiness and aesthetic beauty. We found that with stimulus exposures as brief as 51 ms, participants were able to consistently discriminate between two food items on the basis of these attributes, with little further gain in performance after 119 ms. The second experiment asked whether the influence of these attributes on value-based choice varied with exposure time, decision context, or both. We found that attribute influence on choice evolved over a longer time-frame than predicted based on the rapid detection of these attributes, and observed that the influence of attributes on choice was primarily determined by the goal of the decision. A greater understanding of how individual attributes are perceived and subsequently influence choice is relevant to a variety of disciplines including neuroscience, psychology and economics. " --

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