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Nand Flash Memory Technologies

Author : Seiichi Aritome
ISBN : 9781119132608
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78. 98 MB
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Offers a comprehensive overview of NAND flash memories, with insights into NAND history, technology, challenges, evolutions, and perspectives Describes new program disturb issues, data retention, power consumption, and possible solutions for the challenges of 3D NAND flash memory Written by an authority in NAND flash memory technology, with over 25 years’ experience

Nand Flash Memory Technologies

Author : Seiichi Aritome
ISBN : 9781119132622
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 47. 66 MB
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Offers a comprehensive overview of NAND flash memories, with insights into NAND history, technology, challenges, evolutions, and perspectives Describes new program disturb issues, data retention, power consumption, and possible solutions for the challenges of 3D NAND flash memory Written by an authority in NAND flash memory technology, with over 25 years’ experience

Convergence Of More Moore More Than Moore And Beyond Moore

Author : Simon Deleonibus
ISBN : 9781000064551
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 96 MB
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The era of Sustainable and Energy Efficient Nanoelectronics and Nanosystems has come. The research and development on Scalable and 3D integrated Diversified functions together with new computing architectures is in full swing. Besides data processing, data storage, new sensing modes and communication capabilities need the revision of process architecture to enable the Heterogeneous co integration of add-on devices with CMOS: the new defined functions and paradigms open the way to Augmented Nanosystems. The choices for future breakthroughs will request the study of new devices, circuits and computing architectures and to take new unexplored paths including as well new materials and integration schmes. This book reviews in two sections, including seven chapters, essential modules to build Diversified Nanosystems based on Nanoelectronics and finally how they pave the way to the definition of Nanofunctions for Augmented Nanosystems.

Nanomaterials Based Charge Trapping Memory Devices

Author : Ammar Nayfeh
ISBN : 9780128223437
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 56 MB
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Rising consumer demand for low power consumption electronics has generated a need for scalable and reliable memory devices with low power consumption. At present, scaling memory devices and lowering their power consumption is becoming more difficult due to unresolved challenges, such as short channel effect, Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL), and sub-surface punch-through effect, all of which cause high leakage currents. As a result, the introduction of different memory architectures or materials is crucial. Nanomaterials-based Charge Trapping Memory Devices provides a detailed explanation of memory device operation and an in-depth analysis of the requirements of future scalable and low powered memory devices in terms of new materials properties. The book presents techniques to fabricate nanomaterials with the desired properties. Finally, the book highlights the effect of incorporating such nanomaterials in memory devices. This book is an important reference for materials scientists and engineers, who are looking to develop low-powered solutions to meet the growing demand for consumer electronic products and devices. Explores in depth memory device operation, requirements and challenges Presents fabrication methods and characterization results of new nanomaterials using techniques, including laser ablation of nanoparticles, ALD growth of nano-islands, and agglomeration-based technique of nanoparticles Demonstrates how nanomaterials affect the performance of memory devices

Inside Solid State Drives Ssds

Author : Rino Micheloni
ISBN : 9789811305993
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 60 MB
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The revised second edition of this respected text provides a state-of-the-art overview of the main topics relating to solid state drives (SSDs), covering NAND flash memories, memory controllers (including booth hardware and software), I/O interfaces (PCIe/SAS/SATA), reliability, error correction codes (BCH and LDPC), encryption, flash signal processing and hybrid storage. Updated throughout to include all recent work in the field, significant changes for the new edition include: A new chapter on flash memory errors and data recovery procedures in SSDs for reliability and lifetime improvement Updated coverage of SSD Architecture and PCI Express Interfaces moving from PCIe Gen3 to PCIe Gen4 and including a section on NVMe over fabric (NVMf) An additional section on 3D flash memories An update on standard reliability procedures for SSDs Expanded coverage of BCH for SSDs, with a specific section on detection A new section on non-binary Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes, the most recent advancement in the field A description of randomization in the protection of SSD data against attacks, particularly relevant to 3D architectures The SSD market is booming, with many industries placing a huge effort in this space, spending billions of dollars in R&D and product development. Moreover, flash manufacturers are now moving to 3D architectures, thus enabling an even higher level of storage capacity. This book takes the reader through the fundamentals and brings them up to speed with the most recent developments in the field, and is suitable for advanced students, researchers and engineers alike.

Machine Learning And Non Volatile Memories

Author : Rino Micheloni
ISBN : 9783031038419
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 82. 13 MB
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This book presents the basics of both NAND flash storage and machine learning, detailing the storage problems the latter can help to solve. At a first sight, machine learning and non-volatile memories seem very far away from each other. Machine learning implies mathematics, algorithms and a lot of computation; non-volatile memories are solid-state devices used to store information, having the amazing capability of retaining the information even without power supply. This book will help the reader understand how these two worlds can work together, bringing a lot of value to each other. In particular, the book covers two main fields of application: analog neural networks (NNs) and solid-state drives (SSDs). After reviewing the basics of machine learning in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 shows how neural networks can mimic the human brain; to accomplish this result, neural networks have to perform a specific computation called vector-by-matrix (VbM) multiplication, which is particularly power hungry. In the digital domain, VbM is implemented by means of logic gates which dictate both the area occupation and the power consumption; the combination of the two poses serious challenges to the hardware scalability, thus limiting the size of the neural network itself, especially in terms of the number of processable inputs and outputs. Non-volatile memories (phase change memories in Chapter 3, resistive memories in Chapter 4, and 3D flash memories in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6) enable the analog implementation of the VbM (also called “neuromorphic architecture”), which can easily beat the equivalent digital implementation in terms of both speed and energy consumption. SSDs and flash memories are strictly coupled together; as 3D flash scales, there is a significant amount of work that has to be done in order to optimize the overall performances of SSDs. Machine learning has emerged as a viable solution in many stages of this process. After introducing the main flash reliability issues, Chapter 7 shows both supervised and un-supervised machine learning techniques that can be applied to NAND. In addition, Chapter 7 deals with algorithms and techniques for a pro-active reliability management of SSDs. Last but not least, the last section of Chapter 7 discusses the next challenge for machine learning in the context of the so-called computational storage. No doubt that machine learning and non-volatile memories can help each other, but we are just at the beginning of the journey; this book helps researchers understand the basics of each field by providing real application examples, hopefully, providing a good starting point for the next level of development.

Nonvolatile Memory Technologies With Emphasis On Flash

Author : Joe Brewer
ISBN : 9781118211625
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 63 MB
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Presented here is an all-inclusive treatment of Flash technology, including Flash memory chips, Flash embedded in logic, binary cell Flash, and multilevel cell Flash. The book begins with a tutorial of elementary concepts to orient readers who are less familiar with the subject. Next, it covers all aspects and variations of Flash technology at a mature engineering level: basic device structures, principles of operation, related process technologies, circuit design, overall design tradeoffs, device testing, reliability, and applications.

Computer Organization Architecture Themes And Variations

Author : Alan Clements
ISBN : 9781285415420
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 62. 83 MB
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COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE: THEMES AND VARIATIONS stresses the structure of the complete system (CPU, memory, buses and peripherals) and reinforces that core content with an emphasis on divergent examples. This approach to computer architecture is an effective arrangement that provides sufficient detail at the logic and organizational levels appropriate for EE/ECE departments as well as for Computer Science readers. The text goes well beyond the minimal curriculum coverage and introduces topics that are important to anyone involved with computer architecture in a way that is both thought provoking and interesting to all. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Semiconductor Memories And Systems

Author : Andrea Redaelli
ISBN : 9780128209462
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40. 11 MB
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Semiconductor Memories and Systems provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of semiconductor memory at the technology and system levels. After an introduction on market trends and memory applications, the book focuses on mainstream technologies, illustrating their current status, challenges and opportunities, with special attention paid to scalability paths. Technologies discussed include static random access memory (SRAM), dynamic random access memory (DRAM), non-volatile memory (NVM), and NAND flash memory. Embedded memory and requirements and system level needs for storage class memory are also addressed. Each chapter covers physical operating mechanisms, fabrication technologies, and the main challenges to scalability. Finally, the work reviews the emerging trends for storage class memory, mainly focusing on the advantages and opportunities of phase change based memory technologies. Features contributions from experts from leading companies in semiconductor memory Discusses physical operating mechanisms, fabrication technologies and paths to scalability for current and emerging semiconductor memories Reviews primary memory technologies, including SRAM, DRAM, NVM and NAND flash memory Includes emerging storage class memory technologies such as phase change memory

Future Trends In Microelectronics

Author : Serge Luryi
ISBN : 9781118678183
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38. 56 MB
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Leaders in the field predict the future of themicroelectronics industry This seventh volume of Future Trends in Microelectronicssummarizes and synthesizes the latest high-level scientificdiscussions to emerge from the Future Trends in Microelectronicsinternational workshop, which has occurred every three years since1995. It covers the full scope of cutting-edge topics inmicroelectronics, from new physical principles (quantum computing,correlated electrons), to new materials (piezoelectricnanostructures, terahertz plasmas), to emerging device technologies(embedded magnetic memories, spin lasers, and biocompatiblemicroelectronics). An ideal book for microelectronics professionals and studentsalike, this volume of Future Trends in Microelectronics: Identifies the direction in which microelectronics is headed,enabling readers to move forward with research in an informed,efficient, and profitable manner Includes twenty-nine contributor chapters by internationalauthorities from leading universities, major semiconductorcompanies, and government laboratories Provides a unified, cohesive exploration of various trends inmicroelectronics, looking to future opportunities, rather than pastsuccesses

Nanoelectronic Mixed Signal System Design

Author : Saraju Mohanty
ISBN : 9780071823036
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 42. 82 MB
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Covering both the classical and emerging nanoelectronic technologies being used in mixed-signal design, this book addresses digital, analog, and memory components. Winner of the Association of American Publishers' 2016 PROSE Award in the Textbook/Physical Sciences & Mathematics category. Nanoelectronic Mixed-Signal System Design offers professionals and students a unified perspective on the science, engineering, and technology behind nanoelectronics system design. Written by the director of the NanoSystem Design Laboratory at the University of North Texas, this comprehensive guide provides a large-scale picture of the design and manufacturing aspects of nanoelectronic-based systems. It features dual coverage of mixed-signal circuit and system design, rather than just digital or analog-only. Key topics such as process variations, power dissipation, and security aspects of electronic system design are discussed. Top-down analysis of all stages--from design to manufacturing Coverage of current and developing nanoelectronic technologies--not just nano-CMOS Describes the basics of nanoelectronic technology and the structure of popular electronic systems Reveals the techniques required for design excellence and manufacturability

Radiation Effects In Semiconductors

Author : Krzysztof Iniewski
ISBN : 1439826951
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54. 55 MB
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Space applications, nuclear physics, military operations, medical imaging, and especially electronics (modern silicon processing) are obvious fields in which radiation damage can have serious consequences, i.e., degradation of MOS devices and circuits. Zeroing in on vital aspects of this broad and complex topic, Radiation Effects in Semiconductors addresses the ever-growing need for a clear understanding of radiation effects on semiconductor devices and circuits to combat potential damage it can cause. Features a chapter authored by renowned radiation authority Lawrence T. Clark on Radiation Hardened by Design SRAM Strategies for TID and SEE Mitigation This book analyzes the radiation problem, focusing on the most important aspects required for comprehending the degrading effects observed in semiconductor devices, circuits, and systems when they are irradiated. It explores how radiation interacts with solid materials, providing a detailed analysis of three ways this occurs: Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, and creation of electron-positron pairs. The author explains that the probability of these three effects occurring depends on the energy of the incident photon and the atomic number of the target. The book also discusses the effects that photons can have on matter—in terms of ionization effects and nuclear displacement Written for post-graduate researchers, semiconductor engineers, and nuclear and space engineers with some electronics background, this carefully constructed reference explains how ionizing radiation is creating damage in semiconducting devices and circuits and systems—and how that damage can be avoided in areas such as military/space missions, nuclear applications, plasma damage, and X-ray-based techniques. It features top-notch international experts in industry and academia who address emerging detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches.

Memories In Wireless Systems

Author : Rino Micheloni
ISBN : 9783540790785
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21. 26 MB
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For the technological progress in communication technology it is necessary that the advanced studies in circuit and software design are accompanied with recent results of the technological research and physics in order to exceed its limitations. This book is a guide which treats many components used in mobile communications, and in particular focuses on non-volatile memories. It emerges following the conducting line of the non-volatile memory in the wireless system: On the one hand it develops the foundations of the interdisciplinary issues needed for design analysis and testing of the system. On the other hand it deals with many of the problems appearing when the systems are realized in industrial production. These cover the difficulties from the mobile system to the different types of non-volatile memories. The book explores memory cards, multichip technologies, and algorithms of the software management as well as error handling. It also presents techniques of assurance for the single components and a guide through the Datasheet lectures.

Advances In Computers

Author :
ISBN : 9780128171585
Genre : Computers
File Size : 89. 8 MB
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Advances in Computers, Volume 114, the latest volume in this innovative series published since 1960, presents detailed coverage of new advancements in computer hardware, software, theory, design and applications. Chapters in this updated release include A Comprehensive Survey of Issues in Solid State Drives, Revisiting VM performance and optimization challenges for big data, Towards Realizing Self-Protecting Healthcare Information Systems: Design and Security Challenges, and SSIM and ML based QoE enhancement approach in SDN context. Provides in-depth surveys and tutorials on new computer technology Covers well-known authors and researchers in the field Presents extensive bibliographies with most chapters Includes volumes that are devoted to single themes or subfields of computer science

Memory Microprocessor And Asic

Author : Wai-Kai Chen
ISBN : 9780203010235
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68. 88 MB
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Timing, memory, power dissipation, testing, and testability are all crucial elements of VLSI circuit design. In this volume culled from the popular VLSI Handbook, experts from around the world provide in-depth discussions on these and related topics. Stacked gate, embedded, and flash memory all receive detailed treatment, including their power cons

Nanoscale Semiconductor Memories

Author : Santosh K. Kurinec
ISBN : 9781351832083
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 53. 36 MB
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Nanoscale memories are used everywhere. From your iPhone to a supercomputer, every electronic device contains at least one such type. With coverage of current and prototypical technologies, Nanoscale Semiconductor Memories: Technology and Applications presents the latest research in the field of nanoscale memories technology in one place. It also covers a myriad of applications that nanoscale memories technology has enabled. The book begins with coverage of SRAM, addressing the design challenges as the technology scales, then provides design strategies to mitigate radiation induced upsets in SRAM. It discusses the current state-of-the-art DRAM technology and the need to develop high performance sense amplifier circuitry. The text then covers the novel concept of capacitorless 1T DRAM, termed as Advanced-RAM or A-RAM, and presents a discussion on quantum dot (QD) based flash memory. Building on this foundation, the coverage turns to STT-RAM, emphasizing scalable embedded STT-RAM, and the physics and engineering of magnetic domain wall "racetrack" memory. The book also discusses state-of-the-art modeling applied to phase change memory devices and includes an extensive review of RRAM, highlighting the physics of operation and analyzing different materials systems currently under investigation. The hunt is still on for universal memory that fits all the requirements of an "ideal memory" capable of high-density storage, low-power operation, unparalleled speed, high endurance, and low cost. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this book bridges technological and application issues to provide the groundwork for developing custom designed memory systems.

Genetic Programming

Author : Krzysztof Krawiec
ISBN : 9783642372070
Genre : Computers
File Size : 85. 22 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Genetic Programming, EuroGP 2013, held in Vienna, Austria, in April 2013 co-located with the Evo* 2013 events, EvoMUSART, EvoCOP, EvoBIO, and EvoApplications. The 18 revised full papers presented together with 5 poster papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 47 submissions. The wide range of topics in this volume reflects the current state of research in the field, including different genres of GP (tree-based, linear, grammar-based, Cartesian), theory, novel operators, and applications.

Microelectronics To Nanoelectronics

Author : Anupama B. Kaul
ISBN : 9781351832380
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 25 MB
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Composed of contributions from top experts, Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics: Materials, Devices and Manufacturability offers a detailed overview of important recent scientific and technological developments in the rapidly evolving nanoelectronics arena. Under the editorial guidance and technical expertise of noted materials scientist Anupama B. Kaul of California Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Lab, this book captures the ascent of microelectronics into the nanoscale realm. It addresses a wide variety of important scientific and technological issues in nanoelectronics research and development. The book also showcases some key application areas of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) that have reached the commercial realm. Capitalizing on Dr. Kaul’s considerable technical experience with micro- and nanotechnologies and her extensive research in prestigious academic and industrial labs, the book offers a fresh perspective on application-driven research in micro- and nanoelectronics, including MEMS. Chapters explore how rapid developments in this area are transitioning from the lab to the market, where new and exciting materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies are revolutionizing the electronics industry. Although many micro- and nanotechnologies still face major scientific and technological challenges and remain within the realm of academic research labs, rapid advances in this area have led to the recent emergence of new applications and markets. This handbook encapsulates that exciting recent progress by providing high-quality content contributed by international experts from academia, leading industrial institutions—such as Hewlett-Packard—and government laboratories including the U.S. Department of Energy’s Sandia National Laboratory. Offering something for everyone, from students to scientists to entrepreneurs, this book showcases the broad spectrum of cutting-edge technologies that show significant promise for electronics and related applications in which nanotechnology plays a key role.

Event Based Neuromorphic Systems

Author : Shih-Chii Liu
ISBN : 9780470018491
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36. 7 MB
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Neuromorphic electronic engineering takes its inspiration from the functioning of nervous systems to build more power efficient electronic sensors and processors. Event-based neuromorphic systems are inspired by the brain's efficient data-driven communication design, which is key to its quick responses and remarkable capabilities. This cross-disciplinary text establishes how circuit building blocks are combined in architectures to construct complete systems. These include vision and auditory sensors as well as neuronal processing and learning circuits that implement models of nervous systems. Techniques for building multi-chip scalable systems are considered throughout the book, including methods for dealing with transistor mismatch, extensive discussions of communication and interfacing, and making systems that operate in the real world. The book also provides historical context that helps relate the architectures and circuits to each other and that guides readers to the extensive literature. Chapters are written by founding experts and have been extensively edited for overall coherence. This pioneering text is an indispensable resource for practicing neuromorphic electronic engineers, advanced electrical engineering and computer science students and researchers interested in neuromorphic systems. Key features: Summarises the latest design approaches, applications, and future challenges in the field of neuromorphic engineering. Presents examples of practical applications of neuromorphic design principles. Covers address-event communication, retinas, cochleas, locomotion, learning theory, neurons, synapses, floating gate circuits, hardware and software infrastructure, algorithms, and future challenges.

Inside Nand Flash Memories

Author : Rino Micheloni
ISBN : 9789048194315
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 82. 21 MB
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Digital photography, MP3, digital video, etc. make extensive use of NAND-based Flash cards as storage media. To realize how much NAND Flash memories pervade every aspect of our life, just imagine how our recent habits would change if the NAND memories suddenly disappeared. To take a picture it would be necessary to find a film (as well as a traditional camera...), disks or even magnetic tapes would be used to record a video or to listen a song, and a cellular phone would return to be a simple mean of communication rather than a multimedia console. The development of NAND Flash memories will not be set down on the mere evolution of personal entertainment systems since a new killer application can trigger a further success: the replacement of Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) with Solid State Drives (SSDs). SSD is made up by a microcontroller and several NANDs. As NAND is the technology driver for IC circuits, Flash designers and technologists have to deal with a lot of challenges. Therefore, SSD (system) developers must understand Flash technology in order to exploit its benefits and countermeasure its weaknesses. Inside NAND Flash Memories is a comprehensive guide of the NAND world: from circuits design (analog and digital) to Flash reliability (including radiation effects), from testing issues to high-performance (DDR) interface, from error correction codes to NAND applications like Flash cards and SSDs.

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