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Mohammed Charlemagne Revisited

Author : Emmet Scott
ISBN : 0578094185
Genre : Christianity and other religions
File Size : 68. 63 MB
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During the 1920s Belgian historian Henri Pirenne came to an astonishing conclusion: the ancient classical civilization, which Rome had established throughout Europe and the Mediterranean world, was not destroyed by the Barbarians who invaded the western provinces in the fifth century, it was destroyed by the Arabs, whose conquest of the Middle East and North Africa terminated Roman civilization in those regions and cut off Europe from any further trading and cultural contact with the East. According to Pirenne, it was only in the mid-seventh century that the characteristic features of classical life disappeared from Europe, after which time the continent began to develop its own distinctive and somewhat primitive medieval culture. Pirenne's findings, published posthumously in his Mohammed et Charlemagne (1937), were even then highly controversial, for by the late nineteenth century many historians were moving towards a quite different conclusion: namely that the Arabs were actually a civilizing force who rekindled the light of classical learning in Europe after it had been extinguished by the Goths, Vandals and Huns in the fifth century. And because Pirenne went so diametrically against the grain of this thinking, the reception of his new thesis tended to be hostile. Paper after paper published during the 1940s and '50s strove to refute him. The most definitive rebuttal however appeared in the early 1980s. This was Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe, by English archaeologists Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse. These, in common with Pirenne's earlier critics, argued that classical civilization was already dead in Europe by the time of the Arab conquests, and that the Arabs arrived on the scene as civilizers rather than destroyers. Hodges and Whitehouse claimed that the latest findings of archaeology fully supported this view, and their work was highly influential. So influential indeed that over the next three decades Pirenne and his thesis was progressively sidelined, so that recent years have seen the publication of dozens of titles in the English language alone which fail even to mention his name. In Mohammed and Charlemagne Revisited historian Emmet Scott reviews the evidence put forward by Hodges and Whitehouse, as well as the more recent findings of archaeology, and comes to a rather different conclusion. For him, the evidence shows that classical civilization was not dead in Europe at the start of the seventh century, but was actually experiencing something of a revival. Populations and towns were beginning to grow again for the first time since this second century - a development apparently attributable largely to the spread of Christianity. In addition, the real centres of classical civilization, in the Middle East, were experiencing an unprecedented Golden Age at the time, with cities larger and more prosperous than ever before. Excavation has shown that these were destroyed thoroughly and completely by the Arab conquests, with many never again reoccupied. And it was precisely then, says Scott, that Europe's classical culture also disappeared, with the abandonment of the undefended lowland villas and farms of the Roman period and a retreat to fortified hilltop settlements; the first medieval castles. For Scott, archaeology demonstrated that the Arabs did indeed blockade the Mediterranean through piracy and slave-raiding, precisely as Pirenne had claimed, and he argues that the disappearance of papyrus from Europe was an infallible proof of this. Whatever classical learning survived after this time, says Scott, was due almost entirely to the efforts of Christian monks. The Pirenne thesis has taken on a new significance in the post 9/11 world. Scott's take on the theory will certainly ignite further and perhaps heated debate.

The Impact Of Islam

Author : Emmet Scott
ISBN : 0988477874
Genre : Civilization, Western
File Size : 47. 80 MB
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When Islam comes to a land, what happens? In this sweeping and thorough historical overview, Emmet Scott answers that question definitively, illuminating the shockingly devastating effects of Islamic encroachment upon Europe during the Middle Ages. This is history with all the timeliness of today's headlines, and an urgent message that our governing authorities ignore at their -- and our -- own risk. -- Robert Spencer, author of the New York Times bestsellers The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) and The Truth About Muhammad In this excellent follow up to Mohammed and Charlemagne Revisited, Emmet Scott demonstrates that the centuries-long struggle between the Christian world and Islam during the Middle Ages left lasting effects on Christian thought and attitudes. The revival of slavery in the Western world after it was nearly obliterated is quite conclusively shown to be the direct result of prolonged contact with the vast Muslim slave-raiding and trading empire which took millions of slaves from Europe and Africa during the Middle Ages. More controversially, Scott also points to violent antisemitism, iconoclasm, the toleration of torture, extreme religious intolerance and the idea of "holy war" as all having first developed in the Christian world in areas of prolonged contact and war with Islam, most notably in Spain. Scott further demonstrates that while Islam initially conquered the most advanced areas of the world, at a time when Medieval Christendom was a poor backwater, within five centuries the balance of power was completely reversed, with the Islamic world stagnant and deteriorating and the Christian world poised for global domination. This is no accident, but the inevitable result of the opposing world-views created by Islam and Christianity. Today, the Islamic revival once again threatens Western progress. It is imperative that our leaders become thoroughly acquainted with the history of earlier Islamic advances. The Impact of Islam is a factual, scholarly and unexaggerated look a period of history more relevant today than ever before. --Rebecca Bynum author of Allah is Dead: Why Islam is Not a Religion

In God S Path

Author : Robert G. Hoyland
ISBN : 9780190209650
Genre : History
File Size : 48. 15 MB
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In just over a hundred years--from the death of Muhammad in 632 to the beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate in 750--the followers of the Prophet swept across the whole of the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain. Their armies threatened states as far flung as the Franks in Western Europe and the Tang Empire in China. The conquered territory was larger than the Roman Empire at its greatest expansion, and it was claimed for the Arabs in roughly half the time. How this collection of Arabian tribes was able to engulf so many empires, states, and armies in such a short period has perplexed historians for centuries. Most accounts of the Arab invasions have been based almost solely on the early Muslim sources, which were composed centuries later to illustrate the divinely chosen status of the Arabs. Robert Hoyland's groundbreaking new history assimilates not only the rich biographical information of the early Muslim sources but also the many non-Arabic sources, contemporaneous or near-contemporaneous with the conquests. In God's Path begins with a broad picture of the Late Antique world prior to the Prophet's arrival, a world dominated by two superpowers: Byzantium and Sasanian Persia. In between these empires, emerged a distinct Arabian identity, which helped forge the inhabitants of western Arabia into a formidable fighting force. The Arabs are the principal actors in this drama yet, as Hoyland shows, the peoples along the edges of Byzantium and Persia--the Khazars, Bulgars, Avars, and Turks--all played critical roles in the remaking of the old world order. The new faith propagated by Muhammad and his successors made it possible for many of the conquered peoples to join the Arabs in creating the first Islamic Empire. Well-paced, comprehensive, and eminently readable, In God's Path presents a sweeping narrative of a transformational period in world history.

Markets And Growth In Early Modern Europe

Author : Victoria N Bateman
ISBN : 9781317321729
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 7 MB
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This is the first study to analyze a wide spread of price data to determine whether market development led to economic growth in the early modern period.

War And Religion

Author : Arnaud Blin
ISBN : 9780520961753
Genre : History
File Size : 48. 38 MB
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The resurgence of violent terrorist organizations claiming to act in the name of God has rekindled dramatic public debate about the connection between violence and religion and its history. Offering a panoramic view of the tangled history of war and religion throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, War and Religion takes a hard look at the tumultuous history of war in its relationship to religion. Arnaud Blin examines how this relationship began through the concurrent emergence of the Mediterranean empires and the great monotheistic faiths. Moving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and into the modern era, Blin concludes with why the link between violence and religion endures. For each time period, Blin shows how religion not only fueled a great number of conflicts but also defined the manner in which wars were conducted and fought.

Prometheus Revisited

Author : Arthur Mitzman
ISBN : 1558493891
Genre : History
File Size : 66. 17 MB
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The myth of Prometheus has long served as a symbol of the industrialization and individualism of the modern world, yet Arthur Mitzman aims to demonstrate an alternative conception emphasizing creativity over productivity, and a harmonious union with nature rather than its technocratic conquest.

Introduction To World Christian History

Author : Derek Cooper
ISBN : 9780830899067
Genre : Religion
File Size : 42. 84 MB
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Christianity is a global faith. Today, people are increasingly aware that Christianity extends far beyond Europe and North America, permeating the Eastern and Southern hemispheres. What we may know less well is that Christianity has always been a global faith. A vast untold story waits to be heard beyond the familiar tale of how the Christian faith spread across Europe. Not only was Jesus born in Asia, but in the early years of the church Christianity found fertile soil in Africa and soon extended to East Asia as well. In this brief introduction to world Christian history, Derek Cooper explores the development of Christianity across time and the continents. Guiding readers to places like Iraq, Ethiopia and India, Scandanavia, Brazil and Oceania, he reveals the fascinating—and often surprising—history of the church.

Means Of Exchange

Author : Dagfinn Skre
ISBN : STANFORD:36105132465001
Genre : History
File Size : 28. 93 MB
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This second volume, based on the excavations of the Viking town Kaupang 2000-2003, presents find types used in economic transactions - coins, hacksilver, ingots, weights and balances. Changes in type and volume of economic transactions at Kaupang and in Scandinavia are discussed, and the economic mentality of Viking crafts- and tradesmen is explored. Earlier, the study of Viking silver currency was based mainly on hoards containing coins and hacksilver. In this volume, the combined study of the find types mentioned, as well as the sophisticated chronology of settlements finds from sites like Kaupang, gives a completely new insight into economy and exchange. In the early 9th century, silver and goods seem to have come to Kaupang mainly from the Carolingian world. Silver, weighed with locally produced lead weights, was used as currency on a limited scale. The old e unit was easily convertible to Carolingian units. After the mid-9th century this early system was altered. The increased availability of silver caused by the import of Islamic coins, as well as the introduction in most of Scandinavia in the 860s/870s of standardized weights of probable Islamic origin, paved the way from then on for an increasing use of silver as payment. These studies demonstrate that sites like Kaupang led the way in economic development in Scandinavia. The urban environment promoted an economic mentality which contributed significantly to the fundamental transformation of Scandinavian culture and society, which culminated in the region's integration in Christian Europe in the High Middle Ages.

Papers Of The Medieval Europe Brugge 1997 Conference Exchange And Trade In Medieval Europe

Author : F. Verhaeghe
ISBN : PSU:000033330198
Genre : Archaeology, Medieval
File Size : 37. 87 MB
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Bar International Series

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015061579457
Genre : Archaeology
File Size : 72. 70 MB
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Geschichte Der Alten Welt Bd Der Orient Und Griechenland

Author : Michael Ivanovitch Rostovtzeff
ISBN : UCAL:$B263938
Genre : History, Ancient
File Size : 21. 52 MB
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The Publishers Trade List Annual

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105010173834
Genre : American literature
File Size : 54. 8 MB
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Towns And Trade In The Age Of Charlemagne

Author : Richard Hodges
ISBN : STANFORD:36105110659906
Genre : History
File Size : 64. 87 MB
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This book examines the important continuing discussion about the rebirth of urbanism in Carolingian Europe. Drawing upon new archaeological evidence from southern and northern Europe, Richard Hodges looks at the end of towns in Roman antiquity, the phenomenon of the Dark Age emporium, and the hotly disputed mechanisms which led to the inception of market towns during the age of Charlemagne. Much use is made, in particular, of recently excavated evidence from the Mediterranean, as well as from England. Towns and Trade in the Age of Charlemagne is an accessible introduction to a crucial debate about urban continuity or discontinuity during the Dark Ages, which has been running throughout the twentieth century. It is an essential guide for all students of the archaeology and history of the period.

Aar Sbl Annual Meeting Program

Author : American Academy of Religion. Meeting
ISBN : UOM:39015081696919
Genre : Bible
File Size : 24. 64 MB
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Review Fernand Braudel Center For The Study Of Economies Historical Systems And Civilizations

Author : Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, and Civilizations
ISBN : UOM:39015038055136
Genre : Economic history
File Size : 50. 93 MB
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Economics And Social Change In Anglo Saxon Kent Ad 400 900

Author : Stuart Brookes
ISBN : UOM:39015069222373
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81. 62 MB
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This book examines archaeological and historical evidence for the socio-economic organization of the kingdom of East Kent, England, as a territorial and social system during the Early to Middle Anglo-Saxon period (AD 400-900). Explicit archaeological and theoretical frameworks are considered to propose a hierarchical model of the spatial organization of communities as a way of providing a micro-economic case study of state formation. In addition to other classical economic and geographical analyses applied, the distributional approach examines the frequency or quantity of commodities with respect to units of economic consumption, such as individuals, households and communities. By examining the saturation levels of community consumption as represented in burial assemblages, a hierarchical model of value regimes underlying exchange sub-systems is suggested. Taken in combination with an analysis of the geographical organisation of settlement, the author argues a thesis on the way regional space was socially and spatially constructed in ways that restricted and monopolised allocative and authoritative resources. Correlations between spatially-distributed phenomena and features of the physical environment are assessed in order to consider the social dynamic in land-holding underlying the territorial and spatially-definable conditions of reproduction. An assessment is made of the importance of restrictions on the movement of people in social formation, by analysing the relationships between routes of communication, the mortuary landscape, and the visual experience of movement. Finally, consideration of these phenomena with respect to changing exchange systems provides models of early medieval state formation.

The Critic

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105015557726
Genre : American literature
File Size : 57. 73 MB
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Roman Ostia Revisited

Author : Anna Gallina Zevi
ISBN : UOM:39015066033203
Genre : History
File Size : 49. 99 MB
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Dedicated to Russell Meiggs, this volume offers some significant reassessments of views on Rome's major port, based on recent excavation and research. It follows the fortunes of the city from the archaic period through to it imperial nadir. Town planning is an important theme in this book, as is the city of Rome's relationship to the sea. 4 papers in English, 11 in Italian, 1 in French and 1 in Spanish.

An Epitome Of Anglican Church History From The Earliest Ages To The Present Time

Author : Ellen Webley-Parry
ISBN : OXFORD:600088136
Genre : Great Britain
File Size : 56. 42 MB
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Bibliography Of Periodical Literature On The Near And Middle East

Author :
ISBN : UCAL:B5100983
Genre : Middle East
File Size : 36. 57 MB
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