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Human Pharmaceuticals Hormones And Fragrances

Author : Thomas Ternes
ISBN : 9781843390930
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 49 MB
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The observed concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in raw wastewater confirm that municipal wastewater represents the main disposal pathway for the PPCPs consumed in households, hospitals and industry. In sewage treatment plant effluents most PPCPs are still present, since many of these polar and persistent compounds are being removed only partially or, in some cases, not at all. Treated wastewater therefore represents an important point source for PPCPs into the environment. After passing a sewage treatment plant the treated wastewater is mostly discharged into rivers and streams or sometimes used to irrigate fields. If drinking water is produced using resources containing a substantial proportion of treated wastewater (e.g. from river water downstream of communities) the water cycle is closed and indirect potable reuse occurs. Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances provides an overview of the occurrence, analytics, removal and environmental risk of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater, surface water and drinking water. The book covers all aspects of the fate and removal of PPCPs in the whole water cycle: consumption and occurrence, analytical methods, the legal background, environmental risk assessment, human and animal toxicology, source control options, wastewater and drinking water treatment as well as indirect reuse. The book presents a summary of the results obtained during the EU project "Poseidon", combined with further expert knowledge on the field, and is written at a level appropriate for professionals involved in management of water resource quality. Professionals in the field including decision makers, engineers and scientists, as well as students entering the field, will find this an invaluable source of information. First comprehensive study on the assessment, fate and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater and drinking water treatment. Emphasises the importance of micropollutants in the water cycle, provides methods for quantifying their fate and technologies for their removal.

Pharmaceuticals In The Environment

Author : Benoit Roig
ISBN : 9781843393146
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 11 MB
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About 4000 medical compounds are being used in the drugs applied today. It is estimated that worldwide consumption of active compounds amounts to some 100,000 tons or more per year. Consequently, there is a need to highlight the most important questions and issues related to presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: current knowledge and need assessment to reduce presence and impact brings together results of previous and on-going EU projects with published data from both governmental sources and scientific literature and manufacturers’ data on production and usage of pharmaceuticals. This book puts together the current knowledge and emphasises questions that deserve attention such as: What is the spectrum of most relevant pharmaceutical products (PPs) for the aquatic environment? Which indicators for supporting environmental managers, health authorities? What is the efficiency of urban and industrial sewage treatment plants over a year? What is the fate and behaviour of PPs in sewage treatment plants? If receiving waters are used for potable water supplies, does the presence of these compounds represent a potential hazard to human health? Could we solve some problems by environmental or cleaner technologies? What regulatory approaches, incentives, prevention actions can be implemented in order to lower PPs concentration in the environment? Does a European practical guidance can be developed? Can the impacts of PPs on the environment be reduced through the use of eco-pharmaco-stewardship approaches including the use of clean synthesis, classification and labelling, and better communication of methods of 'good practice'? How can we better monitor the environmental impact of a pharmaceutical once it has received a marketing authorisation?

Internationales Kl?rschlamm Symposium

Author :
ISBN : 3835631624
Genre :
File Size : 38. 77 MB
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Reversibility Of Chronic Disease And Hypersensitivity Volume 5

Author : William J. Rea
ISBN : 9781498781374
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 61 MB
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The clinical approaches to the chronic degenerative diseases that drain our resources, and compromise our well-being, have become almost exclusively symptom-focused. The common wisdom is that they are idiopathic with final outcomes to be managed rather than prevented or cured. That they are potentially reversible rarely enters any discussion between doctor and patient. Reversibility of Chronic Disease and Hypersensitivity, Volume 5: Treatment Options of Chemical Sensitivity, the final volume of this set, offers a much different perspective on chronic degenerative disease; one that disputes the idiopathic label attached to most, as well as the usual fatalistic prognosis.

Pharmaceuticals In The Environment

Author : Klaus Kümmerer
ISBN : 9783540746645
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 99 MB
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Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.

Green And Sustainable Pharmacy

Author : Klaus Kümmerer
ISBN : 9783642051999
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30. 96 MB
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Within recent years pharmaceuticals have come into focus as contaminants of the environment (see for example Kümmerer, K. editor: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment). At the same time the issue of sustainable chemistry gained momentum. Bringing both together would result in sustainable pharmacy. Sustainable pharmacy is a totally new issue and approach. It addresses environmental, economical and social aspects of pharmacy. In the present stage the focus will be on environmental issues along the whole lifecycle of a pharmaceutical entity. That is dealing with resources and energy input but also with waste issues for example during the synthesis and production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Furthermore, it would also look on the compounds themselves and will aim to improve the degradability of the compounds after their use in the environment to reduce the environmental risk caused by pharmaceuticals in the environment. Another issue is the people using pharmaceuticals such as pharmacists, medical doctors and patients. How can they contribute to more efficient use of pharmaceuticals with less environmental burden and less risk for drinking water. The book "Sustainable Pharmacy" will address all these issues and will be the first one dealing with this important topic.

Latest Research Into Quality Control

Author : Isin Akyar
ISBN : 9789535108689
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 49. 97 MB
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Quality control has an emerging importance in every field of life. Quality control is a process that is used to guarantee a certain level of quality in a product or service. It might include whatever actions a business deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. With the improvement of technology everyday we meet new and complicated devices and methods in different fields. Quality control should be performed in all of those new techniques. In this book "Latest Research Into Quality Control" our aim was to collect information about quality control in many different fields. The aim of this book is to share useful and practical knowledge about quality control in several fields with the people who want to improve their knowledge.

Emerging Organic Contaminants And Human Health

Author : Damia Barcelo
ISBN : 9783642281327
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 8 MB
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This volume provides an overview of the occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants, discusses advanced chemical analysis methods, toxicological and ecotoxicological effects as well as human exposure. One focus is on pharmaceuticals, in particular antibiotics, and the problems associated with their increased use in hospitals. Other covered emerging contaminants occurring e.g. in food, water, air or soil include brominated flame retardants, polar pesticides, phthalates, phosphate esters, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products, musk fragrances, disinfection byproducts, illicit drugs, and nanomaterials. The chapters written by experts are a valuable source of information for a broad audience, such as analytical chemists, environmental chemists and engineers, toxicologists, ecotoxicologists and epidemiologists working already in this field as well as newcomers.

Proceedings Of The 1st International Conference On Sustainable Waste Management Through Design

Author : Harvinder Singh
ISBN : 9783030027070
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 30 MB
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This book describes the latest advances, innovations and applications in the field of waste management and environmental geomechanics as presented by leading researchers, engineers and practitioners at the International Conference on Sustainable Waste Management through Design (IC_SWMD), held in Ludhiana (Punjab), India on November 2-3, 2018. Providing a unique overview of new directions, and opportunities for sustainable and resilient design approaches to protect infrastructure and the environment, it discusses diverse topics related to civil engineering and construction aspects of the resource management cycle, from the minimization of waste, through the eco-friendly re-use and processing of waste materials, the management and disposal of residual wastes, to water treatments and technologies. It also encompasses strategies for reducing construction waste through better design, improved recovery, re-use, more efficient resource management and the performance of materials recovered from wastes. The contributions were selected by means of a rigorous peer-review process and highlight many exciting ideas that will spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaboration among different waste management specialists.

Xenobiotics In The Urban Water Cycle

Author : Despo Fatta-Kassinos
ISBN : 9789048135097
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 35. 86 MB
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The history of chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences is an impressive success story. The products of chemical and pharmaceutical industries are present eve- where in our everyday life. They help to pursue the modern way of living and they contribute to our high standard of living and safety, mobility, communication te- nologies, food, health, textiles and drinking water treatment, among many others. These products are labeled under the categories: pharmaceuticals, pesticides, det- gents, fertilizers, dyes, paints, preservatives, food additives and personal care pr- ucts, to name a few. Within these categories, groups of chemicals with similar structures can be found. However, often groups of chemicals with very different structures belong to the same category. For a long time the production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, their usage and application was connected with the heavy pollution of the environment and serious health effects. At the end of the last century, it was realised that the products of che- cal and pharmaceutical industries are presenting a new type of environmental pol- tion that may also pose a health risk to the consumer. Most chemicals are used in so-called open applications in excessive amounts e. g. for personal care, hygiene, plant protection, health and in textiles. In many cases such as scents, detergents, textile chemicals, surface disinfectants, pesticides and others it is unavoidable that these chemicals are released into the environment according to their intended use.

Predictive Toxicology In Drug Safety

Author : Jinghai J. Xu
ISBN : 9781139493093
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54. 77 MB
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According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 'developing new scientific approaches to detecting, understanding, predicting and preventing adverse events' was a critical path to the future of drug safety. This book brings together a collection of state-of-the-art chapters, written by experts in the drug safety field. It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment and promotes evidence-based toxicology. Each specific area of toxicology relevant for drug discovery is discussed in detail, including theory, experimental approaches and data interpretation supported by comprehensive up-to-date references. Many chapters provide fascinating case studies, which are of general interest for those who have basic science training and are interested in how chemicals interact with the human body.

Green Processes

Author :
ISBN : 9783527688432
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 82 MB
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The shift towards being as environmentally-friendly as possible has resulted in the need for this important reference on the topic of designing safer chemicals. Edited by the leading international experts in the field, this volume covers such topics as toxicity, reducing hazards and biochemical pesticides. An essential resource for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the world of green chemistry, as well as for chemists, environmental agencies and chemical engineers.

Wastewater Reuse And Management

Author : Sanjay K. Sharma
ISBN : 9789400749429
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24. 65 MB
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Over the past 50 years the volume of wastewater has grown exponentially as a result of the increasing world population and the expansion of industrial developments. Researchers all over the world have been trying to address this issue suitably in order to fight water scarcity; yet, it is only recently that wastewater recycling has caught their attention as an effective and responsible solution. Wastewater is a resource that can be adequately treated to successfully satisfy most water demands as well as decreasing wastewater discharges and preventing pollution. This book presents the studies of some of the most prestigious international scientists and gathers them in three different sections: Wastewater Management and Reuse, Wastewater Treatment options and Risk Assessment. The result is an insightful analysis of waste water management, its treatments, and the processes that have been studied, optimized and developed so far to sustain our environment. Wastewater Reuse and Management represents a valuable resource to academic researchers, students, institutions, environmentalists, and anyone interested in environmental policies aimed at safeguarding both the quality and the quantity of water.

Emerging And Priority Pollutants In Rivers

Author : Helena Guasch
ISBN : 9783642257223
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 8 MB
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The enduring changes in the aquatic environment and the increasing influx of contaminants call for novel conceptual and methodological approaches to relating chemical pollution and ecological alterations in ecosystems. This volume highlights the latest advances concerning the sampling, analyses, occurrence, bioavailability, and effects of emerging and priority pollutants in European rivers, the current status of the River Management Plans in Europe, and the applicability of the newly developed techniques for water monitoring purposes. The topics are discussed in the context of the EU Water Framework Directive, evaluating their shortcomings and providing a basis for doing away with them. Linking scientific research and river management practices, this book is an invaluable source of information for environmental chemists, aquatic scientists, ecologists and water managers.

Fate And Effects Of Anticancer Drugs In The Environment

Author : Ester Heath
ISBN : 9783030210489
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 27 MB
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The book provides current knowledge and research on the presence and effects of anticancer drug residues in the aqueous environment and covers all relevant aspects of the presence of these residues in wastewaters and natural aquatic systems, where numerous analogies between their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans and their effects in the environment can be drawn. This book comprises of 18 chapters and represents the combined work of leading scientists from different research institutions from across the globe. We present the state of the art in the field of anticancer drug residues in the aquatic environment while being cognizant of the many challenges that remain.

Micropollutants In Large Lakes

Author : Nathalie Chevre
ISBN : 9781351240284
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 85 MB
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Scientists, regulators, and the general public are now more and more aware of the chemicals present in surface waters worldwide. Agrochemicals, such as herbicides or insecticides, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics can be detected at low to medium concentrations in seas, groundwaters and rivers. Among freshwaters, lakes are of particular concern. These large reservoirs are used as sources of food and drinking water, but also serve for recreational activities. This book aims in presenting insights into the physical, chemical, and ecological dynamics of large lakes that enable proposing recommendations for sustainable lake management regarding chemicals. Lake Geneva, Switzerland, is used as a case study, but the developed methodologies and tools can be useful for lake water quality management in general. A first chapter is dedicated to the chemicals entering the lake through agriculture. These are mainly pesticides. After a review of the different types of compounds, the authors present the main pathways these compounds follow to enter the lake. The case of glyphosate, an herbicide largely used worldwide, is presented. A second chapter illustrates the urban source of pollutants with the case of pharmaceuticals and biocides. Two models are presented that allow estimating the load and the dynamic of these chemicals that may exit from an urban catchment and therefore reach a lake. Special attention will be paid to the ‘end of pipe’ removal of these compounds at a WWTP. A third chapter is dedicated to the lake circulation. The aim of this chapter is to present an overall description of the lake’s hydrodynamics, which is driven by three factors: wind, temperature and Coriolis forces. To achieve this aim, a hydrodynamic model is presented that allows describing the behavior of the top layer of the lake based on the wind direction. The importance of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for characterizing the sources of water and the mixing processes in the lake is also described. The next chapters are dedicated to a Bay, called the Vidy Bay, that receives the treated effluents of the largest wastewater treatment plant of the lake catchment. This latter represents therefore one of the major point sources of contaminants for lake Geneva. These two chapters will focus on the various processes that control the transfer of chemicals (associated to particles or in a dissolved state) discharged into the bay and transported to the lake’s main water body. Then, a next chapter focuses on one major issue of chemicals in aquatic systems like lakes, i.e. the risk of the mixture of chemicals. The evaluation of the risk of mixture is not trivial and the models that allow doing it are presented in a critical way. Their validity as predictive tools is illustrated with the example of herbicides mixture in Lake Geneva. A final chapter synthesizes the main findings and discusses some recommendations for the management of large lakes regarding micropollution.

Encyclopedia Of Environmental Health

Author :
ISBN : 9780444639523
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 67 MB
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Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Second Edition presents the newest release in this fundamental reference that updates and broadens the umbrella of environmental health— especially social and environmental health—for its readers. There is ongoing revolution in governance, policies and intervention strategies aimed at evolving changes in health disparities, disease burden, trans-boundary transport and health hazards. This new edition reflects these realities, mapping new directions in the field that include how to minimize threats and develop new scientific paradigms that address emerging local, national and global environmental concerns. Represents a one-stop resource for scientifically reliable information on environmental health Fills a critical gap, with information on one of the most rapidly growing scientific fields of our time Provides comparative approaches to environmental health practice and research in different countries and regions of the world Covers issues behind specific questions and describes the best available scientific methods for environmental risk assessment

Aquatic Toxicology Research Focus

Author : Elias P. Svensson
ISBN : 1604561920
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79. 75 MB
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Aquatic toxicology is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on aquatic organisms at various levels of organization, from subcellular through individual organisms to communities and ecosystems. This book presents the latest research in this field from around the globe.

Water Reuse

Author : Chris Binnie
ISBN : 9781843390893
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 44 MB
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Water Reuse: An International Survey of current practice, issues and needs examines water reuse practices around the world from different perspectives. The objective is to show how differently wastewater reuse is conceived and practised around the world as well as to present the varied needs and possibilities for reusing wastewater. In the first section water reuse practices around the world are described for regions having common water availability, reuse needs and social aspects. The second section refers to the “stakeholders” point of view. Each reuse purpose demands different water quality, not only to protect health and the environment but also to fulfil the requirements of the specific reuse. Reuses considered are agricultural, urban agriculture as a special case of the former, municipal and industrial. Alongside these uses, the indirect reuse for human consumption through aquifer recharge is also discussed. The third section deals with emerging and controversial topics. Ethical and economical dilemmas in the field are presented as a subject not frequently addressed in this field. The role of governments in respect of public policy in reuse is discussed as well as the different international criteria and standards for reusing wastewater. The importance of public acceptance and the way to properly handle it is also considered. The fourth section of the book presents contrasting case studies; typical situations in the developed world (Japan and Germany) are compared to those in developing countries (Pakistan and Brazil) for agricultural and industrial reuse. Indirect planned reuse for human consumption (Germany) is compared with an unplanned one (Mexico). The Windhoek, Namibia case study is presented to emphasize why if the direct reuse of wastewater for human consumption has been performed with success for more than 35 years it is still the only example of this type around the world. To illustrate the difficulties of having a common framework for regulating water reuse in several countries, the Mediterranean situation is described. Other case studies presented refer to the reuse situation in Israel, Spain, Cameroon, Nepal and Vietnam, these latter countries being located in water rich areas. This book will be an invaluable information source for all those concerned with water reuse including water utility managers, wastewater policy makers and water resources planners as well as researchers and students in environmental engineering, water resources planning and sanitary engineering. Scientific and Technical Report No. 20

Personal Care Products In The Aquatic Environment

Author : M. Silvia Díaz‐Cruz
ISBN : 9783319188096
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 20 MB
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This volume offers an overview of the occurrence and distribution of personal care products in continental and marine waters, presents analytical methods and degradation technologies and discusses their impact on human health. Experts from different disciplines highlight major issues for each family of compounds related to their occurrence in the water column as well as in solid and biota samples, methodological strategies for their analysis, non-conventional degradation technologies, (eco)toxicity data and their human and environmental risk assessment. The book also includes a general introduction to personal care products, covering their properties, use, behaviour and regulatory framework, and a final chapter identifying knowledge gaps and future research trends. It will appeal to experts from various fields of research, including analytical and environmental chemistry, toxicology and environmental engineering.

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