human-papillomaviruses

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Human Papillomaviruses

Author : IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans
ISBN : 9789283212904
Genre : Medical
File Size : 35. 71 MB
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This ninetieth volume of the IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humansconsiders human papillomaviruses (HPVs) which were evaluated by a previous Working Group (IARC, 1995). The monograph in the present volume incorporates new data that have become available during the past decade. HPVs represent the most common infectious agents that are transmitted sexually throughout the world; the major risk factors are behaviors associated with sexual activity. Although most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared within a period of 2 years, genital HPV infection can lead to clinical disease, including anogenital warts, cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. The risk for persistence of infection and progression of the more than 40 genital HPV types to grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) and cancer differs widely. Persistent infection with carcinogenic HPVs occurs in virtually all cases of cervical cancer. Previous evaluations of HPVs have classified types 16 and 18 as carcinogenic to humans (group 1), types 31 and 33 as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) and some types other than 16, 18, 31 and 33 as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). At that time, the evaluation of types 16 and 18 was based on the strong association between infection with these HPVs and cervical cancer. For types 31 and 33, the association was less strong. The new epidemiological data reviewed in the present volume strongly support and further confirm the previous evaluation of types 16 and 18, and provide new evidence for other HPVs. This information, which includes strong evidence of carcinogenicity at sites other than the cervix, supports new evaluations for several other HPV types in addition to those mentioned above. Since the Working Group was convened in 2005, important innovations in HPV prophylaxis have occurred and these needed to be included in this volume. To date two prophylactic vaccines have been developed and used in large multicentric trials. This prophylactic vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of HPV-related genital diseases. However, the benefits of prophylactic vaccines in a broad public health perspective will be achieved only if such vaccines can be provided to those groups of women for whom access to cervical cancer screening services is most problematic. Therefore, the development of second-generation vaccines that are expected to be cheaper, easier to deliver and to provide T-cell response against pre-existing HPV infections is highly desirable.

Human Papillomaviruses

Author : Clare Davy
ISBN : 9781592599820
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67. 79 MB
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Human Papilloma Viruses contains a collection of protocols that will be a useful resource for both basic scientists and clinicians working in the firld of papillomavirus research. The major themes of this book include: the detection and typing of papillomavirus infections; the study of the papillomavirus lifecycle; and the production and functional analysis of ppapillomavirus proteins. This is achieved using a wide variety of techniques, from PCR to propagation of HPV in vitro.

Immunology Of Human Papillomaviruses

Author : M.A. Stanley
ISBN : 1461360412
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54. 74 MB
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This volume represents a series of papers presented at the Second International Workshop on HPV Immunology held at the University of Cambridge July 5-7 1993. This Workshop and its predecessor held in Amsterdam in May 1992 were two of the major activities of the European Concerted Action "Immunology of Human Papillomavirus and Vaccine Development". The Concerted Action (CA) was supported by grants from the Commission of the European Communities (EC), the French Association for Cancer Research (ARC) and the European Association for Medical Research (EAMR). Twenty two laboratories throughout Europe and Scandinavia were members of the CA, the objectives of which were to develop collaborations, implement scientific exchanges and co-operate in a collective effort to develop vaccination strategies for HPV. HPV's are ubiquitous pathogens and evidence which has been accumulated over the past decade leaves little doubt that infection with certain HPV types (the so called "oncogenic HPV's" 16, 18 and their relatives) is the major risk factor in the development of cancer of the uterine cervix in women. Since an infectious agent, a virus, is implicated as the main aetiologic factor in this disease, the possibility is raised that if one could prevent HPV infection or treat established infections this would be an effective anti-cancer strategy against what is the commonest cancer in women worldwide.

Human Papillomaviruses 1994

Author :
ISBN : UCLA:L0067733568
Genre :
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Human Papillomaviruses And Cervical Cancer

Author : Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz
ISBN : 1586037684
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21. 87 MB
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Contains twelve articles which explore the epidemiology of HPV, testing strategies for HPV infections, new HPV detection methods and other potential biomarkers that might prove useful in cervical cancer diagnosis. This book includes articles which address the research on biomarkers for cervical cancer.

Human Papillomaviruses And Cervical Cancer

Author : Peter L. Stern
ISBN : UOM:39015032310842
Genre : Medical
File Size : 33. 7 MB
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500,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed every year. Through aetiological studies, an association has been established with HPV infection throughout the pathological spectrum of this disease. This book is a timely review of HPV infection in cervical cancer and provides the background to the potential for immunological intervention. This book will appeal to clinicians, virologists, cell and molecular biologists, and immunologists who are involved in thestudy of the molecular and biological basis for the role of HPV in cervical lesions.

Human Papillomaviruses And Carcinoma Cervix Newer Tools For Screening And Detection Of Hpvs

Author : Pradyot Prakash
ISBN : 9781365388682
Genre :
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Papillomaviruses And Human Disease

Author : Kari J. Syrjänen
ISBN : 9783642710971
Genre : Medical
File Size : 80. 44 MB
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In recent years, papillomaviruses in general and human papillo maviruses in particular have been recognized as possible agents of important diseases, including some forms of human cancer. The purpose of this book is to present a concise panorama of the pre sent status of knowledge of this topic. This knowledge is as impor tant to molecular biologists and virologists as it is to clinicians and pathologists. To bridge the gap among these diverse groups of investigators, we conceived of a book covering a broad spectrum of the basic scientific, clinical, and pathological aspects of diseases associated with papillomaviruses. Although the principal thrust of this book is directed at human papillomaviruses, fundamental knowledge of animal viruses is essential to the current understand ing of the molecular mechanisms of cell transformation. For this reason, a chapter on animal viruses has also been included. Some of the experimental work having to do with the elucidation of transformation and other aspects of interaction between the virus and the cell cannot be based on human papillomaviruses because of a lack of suitable experimental models. Hence, some of the chapters dealing with fundamental aspects of viral molecular biol ogy are based on animal models. We were very fortunate in having persuaded a number of distin guished colleagues to contribute to this work.

Human Papillomaviruses And Polyomaviruses In Skin Cancer

Author : Herbert Johannes Pfister
ISBN : 9782889457281
Genre :
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Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), more recently defined as keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), is the most frequent malignant tumor among Caucasians. This book deals with widely distributed cutaneous papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses, which are able to establish life-long persistent infections. They are frequently clinically inapparent in the general population, but can cause skin cancer in immunocompromised hosts or in the aging skin undergoing immunosenescence, thereby leading to major medical problems. The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients is 60-250 times higher than that observed in the general population, which is highly suggestive of viral etiology. The treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF-inhibitors can induce cSCC formation within only 8-12 weeks. The clinicopathological characteristics of these tumors led to speculations on a possible involvement of oncogenic viruses. The evidence presented in this eBook indicates that high priority should be given to the implementation of a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccination program against cutaneous papillomaviruses to prevent NMSC in immunosuppressed allograft recipients.

Genital Human Papillomaviruses

Author : Ola Forslund
ISBN : UOM:39015043251548
Genre : Genital warts
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Human Papillomaviruses Hpvs

Author : Yvette Franklin
ISBN : 1536173312
Genre : Papillomaviruses
File Size : 53. 23 MB
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Virtually all cervical cancer cases are caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV), mainly HPV-16 and HPV-18. Furthermore, HPVs may cause other types of cancer, such as squamous anal cancers and vulvar cancer. In men, HPVs are associated with genital lesions, anal cancer, penile cancer, and head and neck cancers. As such, this compilation focuses on recent findings in HPV epidemiology, prevention, and updates regarding prophylatic HPV vaccines. Bioinformatics tool are important in the analysis of molecular and biological data, which could provide novel insights on the development of treatment and prevention methods for disease control. Through bioinformatics, it is possible to analyze and simulate HPV molecular data through the use of universal databases and analysis tools, in order to better understand the virus genetics and infection cycle. In conclusion, Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs): Detection, Infection and Protection appraises HPV vaccines for the prophylaxis of HPV infection in healthy individuals. Vaccines used for earlier varieties are Gardasil (Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, U.S.A.) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, U.K.).

Human Papillomavirus Up Date

Author : International Union against Cancer
ISBN : OCLC:80216029
Genre :
File Size : 88. 42 MB
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Immunology Of Human Papillomaviruses

Author : M.A. Stanley
ISBN : 9781461524496
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90. 44 MB
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This volume represents a series of papers presented at the Second International Workshop on HPV Immunology held at the University of Cambridge July 5-7 1993. This Workshop and its predecessor held in Amsterdam in May 1992 were two of the major activities of the European Concerted Action "Immunology of Human Papillomavirus and Vaccine Development". The Concerted Action (CA) was supported by grants from the Commission of the European Communities (EC), the French Association for Cancer Research (ARC) and the European Association for Medical Research (EAMR). Twenty two laboratories throughout Europe and Scandinavia were members of the CA, the objectives of which were to develop collaborations, implement scientific exchanges and co-operate in a collective effort to develop vaccination strategies for HPV. HPV's are ubiquitous pathogens and evidence which has been accumulated over the past decade leaves little doubt that infection with certain HPV types (the so called "oncogenic HPV's" 16, 18 and their relatives) is the major risk factor in the development of cancer of the uterine cervix in women. Since an infectious agent, a virus, is implicated as the main aetiologic factor in this disease, the possibility is raised that if one could prevent HPV infection or treat established infections this would be an effective anti-cancer strategy against what is the commonest cancer in women worldwide.

Preventive Strategies Against Human Papillomaviruses

Author : Naveed Shahzad
ISBN : OCLC:1154289078
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 45. 58 MB
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is among the most common viral infections of the reproductive tract. Out of more than 100 different types of HPV identified so far, only a few (termed as "high-risk" subtypes) are associated with cervical cancer. On the other hand, "low-risk" subtypes are associated with genital warts and other benign changes in cervical and oral mucosa. Majority of the HPV infections usually clear up without any intervention within a few months. However, a fraction of HPV infections, such as those with types 16 and 18, can become persistent which may lead to the development of anogenital or cervical cancers. HPV subtypes 16 and 18 together are responsible for approximately 70% of all cervical cancer cases, the fourth major cause of cancer-related deaths in women. In the absence of any specific treatment options, preventive measures are considered as cornerstone of strategies aimed at curbing the burden of this disease. This chapter presents a comprehensive review of strategies that can be employed to prevent and eradicate HPV infection. Minimizing the exposure to HPV risk factors such as unprotected sex, multiple sex partners, early age sex, and not being circumcised, can reduce the chances of getting HPV infection to a significant level. Mass screening programs have also been effective in HPV eradication. Nevertheless, immunization against HPV has proven to be the most promising strategy in fight against HPV. Virus-like particles based on bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent anti-HPV vaccines have been licensed and are available in market under the trade names of Cervarix®, Gardasil®, and Gardasil9®, respectively. Various clinical trials and population-based studies have demonstrated high levels of efficacy for all the three vaccines in preventing type-specific malignancies.

Hpv Human Papillomaviruses

Author : James Lee Anderson
ISBN : 1499167458
Genre :
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"Although, your health condition may impact your everyday life, do not let it define who you are." This book covers pertinent information and can help you with your condition. Inside this textbook, you will be able to learn the following: (1) general information about HPV, (2) how infection is being transmitted, (3) how to talk to your partner about your condition, (4) the images of genital warts, (5) about infection of HPV in men, (6) about oropharyngeal cancer, (7) about cervical cancer in women, (8) free or low-cost cervical cancer screening and follow-up tests, (9) how HPV causes infections, (10) the available treatments for HPV infections and associated health problems, (11) how to prevent the disease, (12) about the available vaccines and their safety, (13) when not to take vaccination, and the (14) on-going research on HPV infections and their treatments.Thank you and may you have a very good understanding about HPV. I wish you good health, and as always...be well!

Human Papilloma Viruses

Author : D.J. McCance
ISBN : 0444506268
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 56 MB
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This book describes up-to-date information on the pathogenesis and molecular biology of human papillomaviruses and describes the mechanistic role of the viruses in epithelial cancers. Included in the book are chapters on the epidemiology of human papillomaviruses, the factors that control replication and transcription and the viral proteins, which are involved in modulating the biology of the host cell leading to cancer. Details of the immune response to the viruses and potential vaccine strategies are discussed.

The Health Professional S Hpv Handbook

Author : Walter Prendiville
ISBN : 1842143360
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24. 40 MB
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This compact, illustrated handbook is a concise but comprehensive resource that introduces medical students, general medical practitioners and gynecologists to the significance of the human papillomaviruses in the etiology of cervical cancer. All chapters are fully referenced and written by experts in the field. The content review virus structure, the epidemiology of HPV, the latest advances in HPV vaccination, and new markers for cervical disease.

Human Papillomaviruses De Regulate Cell Cycle Control During The Viral Life Cycle

Author : Margaret Nell Ruesch
ISBN : NWU:35557000093656
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Completion of the life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) requires keratinocyte differentiation, demonstrated by the restriction of viral late functions to the supra-basal layers of an infected epithelium. In addition to this requirement for differentiation, HPVs must also take advantage of the DNA replication machinery of the host cell in order to synthesize viral DNA. Interestingly, the keratinocytes of a normal epithelium cease DNA synthesis prior to the onset of differentiation. HPV must therefore prevent this process of cell cycle exit in order to replicate viral DNA in differentiating keratinocytes. This work addresses how HPVs, specifically the E7 oncoprotein, de-regulate cell cycle control in proliferating keratinocyte monolayers as well as in differentiating keratinocytes. In keratinocyte monolayers, it was found that the disruption of Rb function, an activity known to be provided by E7, is sufficient for the abrogation of DNA-damage induced G1/S arrest. In order to investigate HPV's deregulation of cell cycle control in the context of differentiating keratinocytes, the utility of a simplified system for keratinocyte differentiation was examined. It was demonstrated that suspension of keratinocytes containing episomal HPV DNA in semi-solid medium faithfully induced many HPV late functions including transcription from the late promoter, amplification of viral DNA, and expression of late genes. Furthermore, expression of late proteins and viral DNA amplification temporally coincided and occurred in the same population of cells. Suspension in methylcellulose therefore provides a more rapid and reproducible alternative to raft cultures for the study of differentiation-dependent HPV functions. Using this system to investigate how HPV alters cell cycle control during differentiation, it was found that the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) p27 and p57 were up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation, and the E7 oncoproteins disrupted cell cycle exit in suspended keratinocytes without affecting the activities of these CKIs. E7 expression resulted in the partial retention of cyclin dependent kinase activity, the hyperphosphorylation of Rb, and a reduction in Rb protein levels during keratinocyte differentiation. These studies indicate that E7 may inactivate Rb, a protein known to be critical in regulating the process of cell cycle exit in differentiating cells, through multiple pathways.

Papillomaviruses In Human Cancer

Author : Massimo Tommasino
ISBN : 9781475761276
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79. 91 MB
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Development Of Prophylactic And Therapeutic Combined Vaccines Against Human Papillomaviruses Hpv Using A Multimerized Thioredoxin Trx Scaffold

Author : Xueer Zhao
ISBN : OCLC:1195953554
Genre :
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