on the nature of continental shelves

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On The Nature Of Continental Shelves

Author : John J Walsh
ISBN : 9781483258324
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 53 MB
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On the Nature of Continental Shelves discusses continental margins using techniques of systems analysis applied on minicomputers. The book describes insights and theories of mechanisms of enhanced primary production at the continental shelves, emphasizing these as the source energy, food, and recreation, and a possible means to detect global change while in its early phases. The text explains circulation, equations of motion, Ekman dynamics, and baroclinic effects of vertical changes in water density. Production in the seas involves the process of photosynthesis by organisms in which instruments on aircraft platforms can measure salinity and chlorophyll fluorescence. During photosynthesis, some of the light energy absorbed by phytoplankton pigments is emitted as fluorescence, at longer wavelengths, which can then detected. Adult fish and crustaceans are mobile and add a biological vector to the physical movement of organisms on the continental shelves. The book examines food limitation and the conditions of the Bering Sea, the Mid-Atlantic, and the Gulf of Mexico. The text also investigates sinking losses, present depocenters, atmospheric forcing, eutrophication, overfishing, and the effects of climate on primary production at the continental shelves. The book can be beneficial for students of meteorology, oceanography as well as to marine ecologists, biologists, and environmentalists.

The Continental Shelf Beyond 200 Nautical Miles

Author : Joanna Mossop
ISBN : 9780191078699
Genre : Law
File Size : 66. 21 MB
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Under the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, States have sovereign rights over the resources of their continental shelf out to 200 nautical miles from the coast. Where the physical shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles, States may exercise rights over those resources to the outer limits of the continental shelf. More than 80 States may be entitled to claim sovereign rights over their continental shelf where it extends beyond 200 nautical miles from their coast, and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf is currently examining many of these claims. This book examines the nature of the rights and obligations of coastal States in this area, with a particular focus on the options for regulating activities on the extended continental shelf. Because the extended continental shelf lies below the high seas, the area poses unique legal challenges for coastal States that are different from those faced in respect of the shelf within 200 nautical miles. In addition, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea imposes some specific obligations that coastal States must comply with in respect of the extended continental shelf. The book discusses the development of the concept of the extended continental shelf. It explores a range of issues facing the coastal State in regulating matters such as environmental protection, fishing, bioprospecting, exploitation of non-living resources and marine scientific research on the extended continental shelf. The book proposes a framework for navigating the intersection between the high seas and the extended continental shelf and minimising the potential for conflict between flag and coastal States.

The Outer Limits Of The Continental Shelf

Author : Suzette V. Suarez
ISBN : 9783540798583
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 7 MB
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A. The Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (herein- ter the “Convention”) marks the beginning of a new era in the law of 1 the sea. The negotiations for this treaty at the Third United Nations Conference for the Law of the Sea (hereinafter “UNCLOS III”), lasted for nine years, from 1973 to 1982. The Convention regulates the principal aspects of international oceans affairs. It establishes and fixes the limits of maritime zones, provides for the rights and duties of states in these zones, establishes the law app- cable in the international seabed area on the basis of the principle of common heritage of mankind, imposes obligations on states to protect the marine environment, and provides for the means of dispute sett- ment. One of the most contentious and divisive issues at UNCLOS III were the outer limits of the continental shelf. Previously, in the 1958 Con- 2 vention on the Continental Shelf (hereinafter the “1958 Convention”), no limits were established for the continental shelf. States were allowed to claim areas of continental shelves based on their capacity to exploit the mineral resources of the shelf. The legal framework in the 1958 Convention would obviously conflict with the principle of the common heritage of mankind. Delegates realized that limits have to be est- lished, but up to where and on the basis of which principles, was a c- tentious question.

The Delimitation Of The Continental Shelf Between Denmark Germany And The Netherlands

Author : Alex G. Oude Elferink
ISBN : 9781107513044
Genre : Law
File Size : 47. 94 MB
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Alex G. Oude Elferink's detailed analysis of the negotiations between Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands concerning the delimitation of their continental shelf in the North Sea makes use of the full range of government archives in these three States. He looks at the role of international law in policy formulation and negotiations, and explores the legal context, political considerations and, in particular, oil interests which fed into these processes. He also explains why the parties decided to submit their disputes to the International Court of Justice and looks at the preparation of their pleadings and litigation strategy before the Court. The analysis shows how Denmark and The Netherlands were able to avoid the full impact of the implications of the Court's judgment by sidestepping legal arguments and insisting instead on political considerations.

Continental Shelf Limits

Author : Peter J. Cook
ISBN : 0198027869
Genre : Law
File Size : 73. 1 MB
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Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down the rules and regulations governing claims to a continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles for the 130 coastal States and entities that have ratified or acceded to it. This book is designed to help those coastal States implement the provisions of Article 76, covering the technical issues involved and explaining the interface between the legal concepts contained within the article. It covers all aspects that will have to be considered by a coastal State if it wishes to make a claim under the Convention, including the characteristics of continental margins, distance determination, bathymetric data collection. geological and geophysical techniques, and boundary conditions.

Proposed 1985 Outer Continental Shelf Oil And Gas Lease Sale Offshore The Mid Atlantic States

Author :
ISBN : UVA:35007004720102
Genre : Oil and gas leases
File Size : 75. 52 MB
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Assessment Of The U S Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program

Author : Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program
ISBN : 9780309582384
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 85 MB
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International Custom And The Continental Shelf

Author : Zdenek J. Slouka
ISBN : 9789401192101
Genre : Law
File Size : 65. 95 MB
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One of the reasons for the speed with which international law has been changing in recent years has been the acceleration in the development of technology. New technological capabilities create opportunities for new kinds of economic activities which in turn require new legal norms to regulate them. Many such norms are formulated by express agreement and embodied in multilateral treaties. Much of contemporary air and space law is being developed by this method. For various reasons, however, the treaty making process is not always adequate for the development of new law, at least in its initial stages. Express agreement of a substantial majority of states on norms formulated with some precision requires much time and effort. Eighteen years have passed, for example, since the United Nations International Law Commission began its work on the law of the sea which led to the formulation of four conventions at the Geneva Conference of 1958 on this subject. Ten years after this Conference, none of the four conventions has been ratified or acceded to by a majority of the states of the world. It is not surprising, therefore, that in some fie1ds new law first emerges as a set of customary norms of varying degrees of c1arity and general accep tance. But the nature of the process of development and change of customary norms has remained inadequately understood and explained in the theory of intemationallaw. Some eminent jurists have called it "a mystery.

International Law

Author : Hersch Lauterpacht
ISBN : 0521212073
Genre : International law
File Size : 38. 69 MB
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Proposed 1983 Outer Continental Shelf Oil And Gas Lease Sale Offshore The Mid Atlantic States Final

Author : United States. New York Outer Continental Shelf Office
ISBN : UOM:39015028489931
Genre : Continental shelf
File Size : 78. 95 MB
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