earthquake disasters in latin america a holistic approach springerbriefs in earth sciences

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Earthquake Disasters In Latin America

Author : Heriberta Castaños
ISBN : 9789400728097
Genre : Nature
File Size : 77. 56 MB
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This book is an attempt to demonstrate the analytical power of the holistic approach for understanding disasters. Six major earthquakes in Latin America are used as an example: the general idea is to place disasters in a broad social and regional context. Understanding disasters is a way of understanding the social system. The idea is to show that every major disaster is unique and different. Statistical methods may be useful for purposes of risk estimation but modern disasters are "systemic" and complex. In the chapter on the 2010 Chile earthquake we discuss the tsunami and why the system of tsunami alert did not work. The introductory chapter contains some basics of seismology (plate tectonics) and earthquake engineering. The 1985 Mexico earthquake describes why geology is important. Why was Mexico City founded in a lake? Technology must be adapted to the environment, not "imported" from possibly more advanced but different societies. The 1970 Peru earthquake is an example of disaster in a unique environment. Caracas 1967 takes us on a survey of different engineering solutions. And the 1960 Chile earthquake leads us on a retrospective survey--what has changed in Chile between the two major Chile earthquakes? A discussion on Charles Darwin’s observations of the 1835 Chile earthquake provides a fitting summary.

Fundamentals Of Earthquake Prediction

Author : Cinna Lomnitz
ISBN : UCSD:31822016469744
Genre : Nature
File Size : 44. 49 MB
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The new field of earthquake prediction is scientifically challenging. Many lives could be saved if reliable, practical, prediction methods could be developed. While plate tectonics offers basic insight, proposals for practical prediction techniques are controversial. This book contains the rigorous statistical methods and analysis which allow readers to recognize promising approaches.

Catalogue Of Meteorites From South America

Author : Rogelio Daniel Acevedo
ISBN : 9783319019253
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 94 MB
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The first Catalogue of Meteorites from South America includes new specimens never previously reported, while doubtful cases and pseudometeorites have been deliberately omitted. The falling of these objects is a random event, but the sites where old meteorites are found tend to be focused in certain areas, e.g. in the deflation surfaces in Chile’s Atacama Desert, due to favorable climate conditions and ablation processes. Our Catalogue provides basic information on each specimen like its provenance and the place where it was discovered (in geographic co-ordinates and with illustrative maps), its official name, its classification type (class, and if applicable, weathering grade and shock stage), if it was seen falling or was found by chance, its total mass or weight, the institution where it is held, and the most important bibliographic references about it.

The Illusion Of Risk Control

Author : Gilles Motet
ISBN : 9783319329390
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 3 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book explores the implications of acknowledging uncertainty and black swans for regulation of high-hazard technologies, for stakeholder acceptability of potentially hazardous activities and for risk governance. The conventional approach to risk assessment, which combines the likelihood of an event and the severity of its consequences, is poorly suited to situations where uncertainty and ambiguity are prominent features of the risk landscape. The new definition of risk used by ISO, “the effect of uncertainty on [achievement of] one’s objectives”, recognizes this paradigm change. What lessons can we draw from the management of fire hazards in Edo-era Japan? Are there situations in which increasing uncertainty allows more effective safety management? How should society address the risk of potentially planet-destroying scientific experiments? This book presents insights from leading scholars in different disciplines to challenge current risk governance and safety management practice.

Mantle Plumes And Their Effects

Author : Mainak Choudhuri
ISBN : 9783319442396
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 85 MB
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This book presents a brief synopsis of the current academic understanding of the plume hypothesis, its surface manifestations and its shortcomings. It also describes methods for estimating the uplift history of a region due to plume activity. It discusses different models for the elastic properties of the lithosphere and their estimation as a background for plume emplacement, and introduces the plume hypothesis, describing the major plume types and their effect on the lithosphere. Two chapters are dedicated to the dynamic and permanent topography produced by an impinging plume head below the lithosphere and its estimation. It also presents the historical background of the plume hypothesis, its criticisms and alternatives.

Impact Craters In South America

Author : Rogelio Daniel Acevedo
ISBN : 9783319130934
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 57 MB
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A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological "in situ" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela only a few were observed. Only Ecuador is waiting for new discoveries. So far, the largest well stated impact site is still the Araguainha structure in Brazil with its 40 kilometers in diameter. However, two possible impact structures are larger than Araguainha: Malvinas, (with 250 kilometers in diameter) and Vichada in Colombia, (50 kilometers). This study also reports the existence of some Tertiary-Quaternary glassy impactite layers: the "escorias" and "tierras cocidas" of the pampas in Argentina.

Three Great Tsunamis Lisbon 1755 Sumatra Andaman 2004 And Japan 2011

Author : Harsh K. Gupta
ISBN : 9789400765764
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 37 MB
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Tsunamis are primarily caused by earthquakes. Under favourable geological conditions, when a large earthquake occurs below the sea bed and the resultant rupture causes a vertical displacement of the ocean bed, the entire column of water above it is displaced, causing a tsunami. In the ocean, tsunamis do not reach great heights but can travel at velocities of up to 1000 km/hour. As a tsunami reaches shallow sea depths, there is a decrease in its velocity and an increase in its height. Tsunamis are known to have reached heights of several tens of meters and inundate several kilometres inland from the shore. Tsunamis can also be caused by displacement of substantial amounts of water by landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calving and rarely by meteorite impacts and nuclear tests in the ocean. In this SpringerBrief, the causes of tsunamis, their intensity and magnitude scales, global distribution and a list of major tsunamis are provided. The three great tsunamis of 1755, 2004 and 2011are presented in detail. The 1755 tsunami caused by the Lisbon earthquake, now estimated to range from Mw 8.5 to 9.0, was the most damaging tsunami ever in the Atlantic ocean. It claimed an estimated 100,000 human lives and caused wide-spread damage. The 2004 Sumatra Andaman Mw 9.1 earthquake and the resultant tsunami were the deadliest ever to hit the globe, claiming over 230,000 human lives and causing wide-spread financial losses in several south and south-east Asian countries. The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the resultant tsunami were a surprise to the seismologists in Japan and around the globe. The height of the tsunami far exceeded the estimated heights. It claimed about 20,000 human lives. The tsunami also caused nuclear accidents. This earthquake has given rise to a global debate on how to estimate the maximum size of an earthquake in a given region and the safety of nuclear power plants in coastal regions. This Brief also includes a description of key components of tsunami warning centres, progress in deploying tsunami watch and warning facilities globally, tsunami advisories and their communication, and the way forward.

The Argentina Continental Margin

Author : Roberto A. Violante
ISBN : 9783319041964
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 81 MB
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The evolution of the Argentina Continental Margin during the Quaternary and the stratigraphic and morphosedimentary configuration responded to climatic variability, oceanographic changes, glacioeustatic fluctuations and tectono-isostatic processes, which began to impact on the margin during previous geological periods. The final modeling of the margin was achieved in the late Miocene, when the interaction between the Antarctic and North Atlantic water-masses favored climatic and oceanographic changes with a profound effect on morphosedimentary features. In the Quaternary, the different regions of the margin distinctly responded to such changes. Whereas in the shelf the main modeling factors were the sea-level fluctuations of glacioeustatic origin and consequent marine-continental stratigraphic records, in the slope (particularly in the sector corresponding to the passive margin) the prevailing effect was the interaction between water-masses and the sea floor, giving origin to contouritic depositional systems accompanied of gravity processes responsible of turbiditic and mass-wasting deposits. Different relationships between contouritic and turbiditic facies respond to distinct combinations of oceanic circulation variability and the indirect effect on the sea floor of sea-level fluctuations. As a result of this complexity in the regional processes in the framework of the broad hemispheric oceanographic-climatic conditioning factors, the ACM can be considered as a complete archive for the Southern Ocean.

Resilience And Sustainability In Relation To Natural Disasters A Challenge For Future Cities

Author : Paolo Gasparini
ISBN : 9783319043166
Genre : Nature
File Size : 23. 72 MB
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The number of megacities worldwide is rapidly increasing and contemporary cities are also expanding fast. As a result, cities and their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of catastrophic natural events such as extreme weather events (recently more frequent and intense as a result of the ongoing climate changes), earthquakes, tsunamis or man-induced events such as terrorist attacks or accidents. Furthermore, due to increasing technological complexity of urban areas, along with increasing population density, cities are becoming more and more risk attractors. The resilience of cities against catastrophic events is a major challenge of today. It requires city transformation processes to be rethought, to mitigate the effects of extreme events on the vital functions of cities and communities. Redundancy and robustness of the components of the urban fabric are essential to restore the full efficiency of the city's vital functions after an extreme event has taken place. These items were addressed by an interdisciplinary and international selection of scientists during the 6th UN-World Urban Forum that was held in Naples, Italy in September 2012. This volume represents in six chapters the views from sociologists, economists and scientists working on natural risk and physical vulnerability on resilience and sustainability for future cities in relation to natural disasters.

Geothermics

Author : Vincenzo Pasquale
ISBN : 9783319520841
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 71 MB
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This book, now in its second edition, offers a comprehensive and modern treatment on the background knowledge of heat transfer processes in the lithosphere. In the light of the success of the first edition, several chapters of the book have been revised and the book has been enriched with a new chapter on geothermal methods used for the inference of past climate changes.The book starts with a brief review of global tectonics and of the structure of the crust and upper mantle. Then the theory of heat conduction as well as the thermal properties and the methods for the determination of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat are introduced. Subsequently the geothermal flow and the thermal state of the lithosphere and deep interior are analyzed. The formation, upwelling mechanisms, solidification and cooling of magmas, which can be a fundamental heat source in many geothermal systems, are reviewed. Analytical methods used for gaining information on heat and groundwater flow from the analyses of temperature depth data are also covered. Data and practical examples are supplied to facilitate the understanding of the different topics.The book is intended for Earth science graduate students and researchers.

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