earthquake disasters in latin america a holistic approach springerbriefs in earth sciences

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Earthquake Disasters In Latin America

Author : Heriberta Castaños
ISBN : 9789400728097
Genre : Nature
File Size : 77. 1 MB
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This book is an attempt to demonstrate the analytical power of the holistic approach for understanding disasters. Six major earthquakes in Latin America are used as an example: the general idea is to place disasters in a broad social and regional context. Understanding disasters is a way of understanding the social system. The idea is to show that every major disaster is unique and different. Statistical methods may be useful for purposes of risk estimation but modern disasters are "systemic" and complex. In the chapter on the 2010 Chile earthquake we discuss the tsunami and why the system of tsunami alert did not work. The introductory chapter contains some basics of seismology (plate tectonics) and earthquake engineering. The 1985 Mexico earthquake describes why geology is important. Why was Mexico City founded in a lake? Technology must be adapted to the environment, not "imported" from possibly more advanced but different societies. The 1970 Peru earthquake is an example of disaster in a unique environment. Caracas 1967 takes us on a survey of different engineering solutions. And the 1960 Chile earthquake leads us on a retrospective survey--what has changed in Chile between the two major Chile earthquakes? A discussion on Charles Darwin’s observations of the 1835 Chile earthquake provides a fitting summary.

Fundamentals Of Earthquake Prediction

Author : Cinna Lomnitz
ISBN : UCSD:31822016469744
Genre : Nature
File Size : 83. 72 MB
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The new field of earthquake prediction is scientifically challenging. Many lives could be saved if reliable, practical, prediction methods could be developed. While plate tectonics offers basic insight, proposals for practical prediction techniques are controversial. This book contains the rigorous statistical methods and analysis which allow readers to recognize promising approaches.

Toward A Small Family Ethic

Author : Travis N. Rieder
ISBN : 9783319338712
Genre : Medical
File Size : 22. 90 MB
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This thought-provoking treatise argues that current human fertility rates are fueling a public health crisis that is at once local and global. Its analysis and data summarize the ecological costs of having children, presenting ethical dilemmas for prospective parents in an era of competition for scarce resources, huge disparities of wealth and poverty, and unsustainable practices putting irreparable stress on the planet. Questions of individual responsibility and integrity as well as personal moral and procreative issues are examined carefully against larger and more long-range concerns. The author’s assertion that even modest efforts toward reducing global fertility rates would help curb carbon emissions, slow rising global temperatures, and forestall large-scale climate disaster is well reasoned and more than plausible. Among the topics covered: · The multiplier effect: food, water, energy, and climate. · The role of population in mitigating climate change. · The carbon legacy of procreation. · Obligations to our possible children. · Rights, what is right, and the right to do wrong. · The moral burden to have small families. Toward a Small Family Ethic sounds a clarion call for bioethics students and working bioethicists. This brief, thought-rich volume steers readers toward challenges that need to be met, and consequences that will need to be addressed if they are not.

Urban Vulnerability And Climate Change In Africa

Author : Stephan Pauleit
ISBN : 9783319039824
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 92 MB
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Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences and qualitative approaches of the social sciences; a novel multi-risk modeling methodology; and strategic approaches to urban and green infrastructure planning with neighborhood perspectives of adaptation.

Csr 2 0

Author : Wayne Visser
ISBN : 9783642408748
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 32. 69 MB
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The book examines the evolution and current state of corporate social responsibility (CSR), using a five-stage maturity model: defensive, charitable, promotional, strategic and transformative CSR. The first four stages are dubbed CSR 1.0 and characterise most current CSR practice, while the fifth stage is named CSR 2.0 (also transformative or systemic CSR) and describes emergent and future CSR practices. Reasons are given why CSR 1.0 approaches have failed to have any significant impact on the most serious global social, environmental and ethical challenges. The emergent CSR 2.0 will then be explored in detail by elaborating on five principles underlying the new approach, including: creativity, scalability, responsiveness, glocality and circularity. A four-part DNA Model is also introduced, covering value creation, good governance, societal contribution and ecological integrity, which provides the basis for defining and measuring CSR 2.0. Finally, a 70-question CSR 2.0 self-assessment diagnostic tool developed by the author is presented, with sample data to show how the tool can be used for future research and practitioner application.

A Master Of Science History

Author : Jed Z. Buchwald
ISBN : 9789400726277
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 30 MB
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New essays in science history ranging across the entire field and related in most instance to the works of Charles Gillispie, one of the field's founders.

Fundamentals Of Statistical Hydrology

Author : Mauro Naghettini
ISBN : 9783319435619
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 83 MB
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This textbook covers the main applications of statistical methods in hydrology. It is written for upper undergraduate and graduate students but can be used as a helpful guide for hydrologists, geographers, meteorologists and engineers. The book is very useful for teaching, as it covers the main topics of the subject and contains many worked out examples and proposed exercises. Starting from simple notions of the essential graphical examination of hydrological data, the book gives a complete account of the role that probability considerations must play during modelling, diagnosis of model fit, prediction and evaluating the uncertainty in model predictions, including the essence of Bayesian application in hydrology and statistical methods under nonstationarity. The book also offers a comprehensive and useful discussion on subjective topics, such as the selection of probability distributions suitable for hydrological variables. On a practical level, it explains MS Excel charting and computing capabilities, demonstrates the use of Winbugs free software to solve Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations, and gives examples of free R code to solve nonstationary models with nonlinear link functions with climate covariates.

Industry Interactive Innovations In Science Engineering And Technology

Author : Swapan Bhattacharyya
ISBN : 9789811039539
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54. 7 MB
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The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the International Conference on Industry Interactive Innovation in Science, Engineering and Technology (I3SET 2016). The conference is a collective initiative of all departments and disciplines of JIS College of Engineering (an autonomous institution), Kalyani, West Bengal, India. The primary objective of the conference is to strengthen interdisciplinary research and encourage innovation in a demand-driven way as desired by the industry for escalating technology for mankind. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, industry people and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad shared and contributed their knowledge. The major areas of I3SET 2016 include nonconventional energy and advanced power systems; nanotechnology and applications; pattern recognition and machine intelligence; digital signal and image processing; modern instrumentation, control, robotics and automation; civil engineering and structural design; real-time and embedded systems, communication and devices; advanced optimization techniques; biotechnology, biomedical instrumentation and bioinformatics; and outcome based education.

Tourism And Archaeological Heritage Management At Petra

Author : Douglas C. Comer
ISBN : 9781461414810
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 85. 70 MB
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Once visited only by the cognoscenti of the ancient world, over the last decade Petra has drawn almost a million visitors in some years. Petra burst into popular consciousness with the release of enormously popular motion picture Raiders of the Lost Ark in 1981. Moviegoers all over the world were introduced to some of the spectacular scenic wonders of Petra: the Siq, a narrow chasm with colorful, towering sandstone walls, and Al-Khazna, the exquisitely carved tomb for a Nabataean king. For centuries, the Nabataeans controlled the trade in precious commodities across the Arabian Peninsula, bring spices from Southeast Asia, incense from present-day Yemen, gold and ivory from Africa, and silk from the Far East across the Empty Quarter to ports on the western Mediterranean. In 1985, Petra was included on the list of World Heritage Sites. Since then, low cost jet travel and a fast highway from the capital city of Amman have made the site increasingly accessible. The Jordanian government has made attracting tourists to Jordan a top priority. For all of the attention that Petra has received, it is still surprisingly poorly understood. A widely accepted chronology of the city, even the dates of major tombs and monuments, has yet to be established. Even the mystery of why and how Arab nomads adopted a sedentary lifestyle and built a great city has yet to be fully explained. Will Petra’s popularity as a tourism destination overshadow the importance of addressing these questions, and, more importantly, will tourism damage the archaeological remains there in ways that make answers more difficult or even impossible to find?

Phytoremediation Potential Of Bioenergy Plants

Author : Kuldeep Bauddh
ISBN : 9789811030840
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50. 6 MB
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The globally escalating population necessitates production of more goods and services to fulfil the expanding demands of human beings which resulted in urbanization and industrialization. Uncontrolled industrialization caused two major problems – energy crisis and accelerated environmental pollution throughout the world. Presently, there are technologies which have been proposed or shown to tackle both the problems. Researchers continue to seek more cost effective and environmentally beneficial pathways for problem solving. Plant kingdom comprises of species which have the potential to resolve the couple problem of pollution and energy. Plants are considered as a potential feedstock for development of renewable energy through biofuels. Another important aspect of plants is their capacity to sequester carbon dioxide and absorb, degrade, and stabilize environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, poly-aromatic biphenyls, radioactive materials, and other chemicals. Thus, plants may be used to provide renewable energy generation and pollution mitigation. An approach that could amalgamate the two aspects can be achieved through phytoremediation (using plants to clean up polluted soil and water), and subsequent generation of energy from the phyto-remediator plants. This would be a major advance in achieving sustainability that focuses on optimizing ‘people’ (social issues), ‘planet’ (environmental issues), and ‘profit’ (financial issues). The “Phytoremediation-Cellulosic Biofuels” (PCB) process will be socially beneficial through reducing pollution impacts on people, ecologically beneficial through pollution abatement, and economically viable through providing revenue that supplies an energy source that is renewable and also provides less dependence on importing foreign energy (energy-independence). The utilization of green plants for pollution remediation and energy production will also tackle some other important global concerns like global climate change, ocean acidification, and land degradation through carbon sequestration, reduced emissions of other greenhouse gases, restoration of degraded lands and waters, and more. This book addresses the overall potential of major plants that have the potential to fulfil the dual purposes of phytoremediation and energy generation. The non-edible bioenergy plants that are explored for this dual objective include Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis, Leucaena leucocephalla, Milletia pinnata, Canabis sativa, Azadirachta indica, and Acacia nilotica. The book addresses all possible aspects of phyto-remediaton and energy generation in a holistic way. The contributors are one of most authoritative experts in the field and have covered and compiled the best content most comprehensively. The book is going to be extremely useful for researchers in the area, research students, academicians and also for policy makers for an inclusive understanding and assessment of potential in plant kingdom to solve the dual problem of energy and pollution.

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