development of the vertebrate retina perspectives in vision research

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Development Of The Vertebrate Retina

Author : Barbara L. Finlay
ISBN : 9781468455922
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 93 MB
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The vertebrate retina has a form that is closely and clearly linked to its func tion. Though its fundamental cellular architecture is conserved across verte brates, the retinas of individual species show variations that are also of clear and direct functional utility. Its accessibility, readily identifiable neuronal types, and specialized neuronal connectivity and morphology have made it a model system for researchers interested in the general questions of the genet ic, molecular, and developmental control of cell type and shape. Thus, the questions asked of the retina span virtually every domain of neuroscientific inquiry-molecular, genetic, developmental, behavioral, and evolutionary. Nowhere have the interactions of these levels of analysis been more apparent and borne more fruit than in the last several years of study of the develop ment of the vertebrate retina. Fields of investigation have a natural evolution, rdoving through periods of initial excitement, of framing of questions and controversy, to periods of synthesis and restatement of questions. The study of the development of the vertebrate retina appeared to us to have reached such a point of synthesis. Descriptive questions of how neurons are generated and deployed, and ques tions of mechanism about the factors that control the retinal neuron's type and distribution and the conformation of its processes have been posed, and in good part answered. Moreover, the integration of cellular accounts of development with genetic, molecular, and whole-eye and behavioral accounts has begun.

The Retinal M Ller Cell

Author : Vijay Sarthy
ISBN : 9780306468414
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 88 MB
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The human brain contains more than a billion neurons which interconnect to form networks that process, store, and recall sensory information. These neuronal activities are supported by a group of accessory brain cells coll- tively known as neuroglia. Surprisingly, glial cells are ten times more - merous than neurons, and occupy more than half the brain volume (Hydén, 1961). Although long considered a passive, albeit necessary, component of the nervous system, many interesting and unusual functional properties of glial cells are only now being brought to light. As a result, the status of these cellular elements is approaching parity with nerve cells as a subject for experimental study. The term glia (or glue) seems today to be a misnomer in view of the diverse functions attributed to glial cells. Experimental studies in the last three decades have clearly established that the behavior of glial cells is far from passive, and that they are at least as complex as neurons with regard to their membrane properties. In addition, glial cells are of importance in signal processing, cellular metabolism, nervous system development, and the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. The Müller cell of the ver- brate retina provides a splendid example of an accessory cell that exhibits features illustrating every aspect of the complex behavior now associated with glial cells.

Basic And Clinical Perspectives In Vision Research

Author : Jon G. Robbins
ISBN : 9781475793628
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 74 MB
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I have been asked to write a brief foreword to this volume honoring Hisako Ikeda, providing a review of the accomplishments in our field over the past four decades, when Hisako was an active participant. This I am delighted to do. It has been a most exciting time in vision research and Hisako has been right in the middle of much of the excitement, publishing on a wide variety of topics and providing much new data and many new insights. Hisako's research career can be divided by decades into four quite distinct areas of inquiry. In the 1950s, as a student in Japan, her research interests were psychophysical in nature, and she was concerned with visual illusions, figural aftereffects, and motion detec tion. In the 1960s, after her move to London, she began electrophysiological studies. Much of her work in the 1960s was concerned with the electroretinogram (ERG), its components, and the use of this electrical response for evaluating spectral sensitivities of the eye and retinal degenerations. This work represented the beginning of her electrodiagnostic clinical work, which continued until her retirement.

Presbyopia Research

Author : Gerard Obrecht
ISBN : 9781475721317
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42. 31 MB
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Seeing is life. Seeing is transfonning luminous col We wish to extend our academic and theoretical ored stimulations and shapes into amental represen knowledge and also to complete and exchange our tation, structured in space and in time. But seeing is technical and professional experience to prepare also opening onto the world that surrounds us: it is corrective means for the future. thus a means for communicating and learning. Numerous questions have yet to be answered, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher worth such as: quoting during the bicentennial of the French Revo lution of which he was an instigator, stated, "of all • Will it one day be possible to defer or stop the the senses, vision is that wh ich can be the least aging of the accommodative apparatus? readily separated from judgments of the mind. " • Is further improvement of the current corrective Sight is increasingly called on in our modern means possible, whether spectacles or contact world. Maturity is affected at about 40-45 years by lenses? the on set of presbyopia. Atthat age, which demands • How are behavioral and psychological presbyope all our intellectual and physical means, our sight typologies to be integrated in the course of exam should be irreproachable. Our efficiency must not be ination, prescription, and fitting with corrective diminished.

Biochemistry Of The Eye

Author : Elaine R. Berman
ISBN : 9781475794410
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 65 MB
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My first introduction to the eye came more than three decades ago when my close friend and mentor, the late Professor Isaac C. Michaelson, convinced me that studying the biochemistry of ocular tissues would be a rewarding pursuit. I hastened to explain that I knew nothing about the subject, since relatively few basic biochemical studies on ocular tissues had appeared in the world literature. Professor Michaelson assured me, however, that two books on eye biochemistry had already been written. One of them, a beautiful monograph by Arlington Krause ( 1934) of Johns Hopkins Hospital, is we II worth reading even today for its historical perspective. The other, published 22 years later, was written by Antoinette Pirie and Ruth van Heyningen ( 1956), whose pioneering achievements in eye biochemistry at the Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology in Oxford, England are known throughout the eye research community and beyond. To their credit are classical investigations on retinal, corneal, and lens biochemistry, beginning in the 1940s and continuing for many decades thereafter. Their important book written in 1956 on the Biochemistry of the Eye is a volume that stood out as a landmark in this field for many years. In recent years, however, a spectacular amount of new information has been gener ated in ocular biochemistry. Moreover, there is increasing specialization among investiga tors in either a specific field of biochemistry or a particular ocular tissue.

Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience Patterning And Cell Type Specification In The Developing Cns And Pns

Author : R.B. Hufnagel
ISBN : 9780128062326
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43. 95 MB
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Perspectives On Auditory Research

Author : Arthur N. Popper
ISBN : 9781461491026
Genre : Medical
File Size : 78. 71 MB
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Perspectives on Auditory Research celebrates the last two decades of the Springer Handbook in Auditory Research. Contributions from the leading experts in the field examine the progress made in auditory research over the past twenty years, as well as the major questions for the future.

Patterning And Cell Type Specification In The Developing Cns And Pns

Author :
ISBN : 9780123973481
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 55 MB
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The genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of neural development are essential for understanding evolution and disorders of neural systems. Recent advances in genetic, molecular, and cell biological methods have generated a massive increase in new information, but there is a paucity of comprehensive and up-to-date syntheses, references, and historical perspectives on this important subject. The Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience series is designed to fill this gap, offering the most thorough coverage of this field on the market today and addressing all aspects of how the nervous system and its components develop. Particular attention is paid to the effects of abnormal development and on new psychiatric/neurological treatments being developed based on our increased understanding of developmental mechanisms. Each volume in the series consists of review style articles that average 15-20pp and feature numerous illustrations and full references. Volume 1 offers 48 high level articles devoted mainly to patterning and cell type specification in the developing central and peripheral nervous systems. Series offers 144 articles for 2904 full color pages addressing ways in which the nervous system and its components develop Features leading experts in various subfields as Section Editors and article Authors All articles peer reviewed by Section Editors to ensure accuracy, thoroughness, and scholarship Volume 1 sections include coverage of mechanisms which: control regional specification, regulate proliferation of neuronal progenitors and control differentiation and survival of specific neuronal subtypes, and controlling development of non-neural cells

How Animals See The World

Author : Olga F. Lazareva
ISBN : 9780195334654
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81. 50 MB
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The visual world of animals is highly diverse and often very different from that of humans. This book provides an extensive review of the latest behavioral and neurobiological research on animal vision, detailing fascinating species similarities and differences in visual processing.

Developmental Neurobiology

Author : Greg Lemke
ISBN : 0123751675
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 81 MB
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Developmental Neuroscience is one of the six core disciplines in Neuroscience, and yet no single volume, non-textbook reference exists on the market that provides researchers with more in-depth, high-level information on developmental neurobiology. Currently, anyone interested in the field at a higher level must sift through review articles published frequently and the more specific handbooks that focus on aspects of development rather than the field as a whole. This reference is the first of its kind to fill this need. It pulls together the relevant articles on the topic from the 10-volume Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Academic Press, 2008) and serves as an affordable and immediate resource for scientists, postdocs, graduate students with an interest beyond the basic textbook materials on the subject. The first and only comprehensive, single-volume reference for developmental neuroscience that goes beyond the basic textbook information The 93 chapters cover topics ranging from cell fate determination, path finding, synapse generation, neural stem cells, to neurodegeneration and regeneration, carefully selected from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience by one of the great developmental neuroscientists, Greg Lemke The best researchers in the field provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results

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