conservation paleobiology science and practice

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Conservation Paleobiology

Author : Gregory P. Dietl
ISBN : 9780226506869
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 50 MB
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In conservation, perhaps no better example exists of the past informing the present than the return of the California condor to the Vermilion Cliffs of Arizona. Extinct in the region for nearly one hundred years, condors were successfully reintroduced starting in the 1990s in an effort informed by the fossil record—condor skeletal remains had been found in the area’s late-Pleistocene cave deposits. The potential benefits of applying such data to conservation initiatives are unquestionably great, yet integrating the relevant disciplines has proven challenging. Conservation Paleobiology gathers a remarkable array of scientists—from Jeremy B. C. Jackson to Geerat J. Vermeij—to provide an authoritative overview of how paleobiology can inform both the management of threatened species and larger conservation decisions. Studying endangered species is difficult. They are by definition rare, some exist only in captivity, and for those still in their native habitats any experimentation can potentially have a negative effect on survival. Moreover, a lack of long-term data makes it challenging to anticipate biotic responses to environmental conditions that are outside of our immediate experience. But in the fossil and prefossil records—from natural accumulations such as reefs, shell beds, and caves to human-made deposits like kitchen middens and archaeological sites—enlightening parallels to the Anthropocene can be found that might serve as a primer for present-day predicaments. Offering both deep-time and near-time perspectives and exploring a range of ecological and evolutionary dynamics and taxa from terrestrial as well as aquatic habitats, Conservation Paleobiology is a sterling demonstration of how the past can be used to manage for the future, giving new hope for the creation and implementation of successful conservation programs.

Stratigraphic Paleobiology

Author : Mark E. Patzkowsky
ISBN : 9780226649375
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 23 MB
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Whether the fossil record should be read at face value or whether it presents a distorted view of the history of life is an argument seemingly as old as many fossils themselves. In the late 1700s, Georges Cuvier argued for a literal interpretation, but in the early 1800s, Charles Lyell’s gradualist view of the earth’s history required a more nuanced interpretation of that same record. To this day, the tension between literal and interpretive readings lies at the heart of paleontological research, influencing the way scientists view extinction patterns and their causes, ecosystem persistence and turnover, and the pattern of morphologic change and mode of speciation. With Stratigraphic Paleobiology, Mark E. Patzkowsky and Steven M. Holland present a critical framework for assessing the fossil record, one based on a modern understanding of the principles of sediment accumulation. Patzkowsky and Holland argue that the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space is controlled not only by processes of ecology, evolution, and environmental change, but also by the stratigraphic processes that govern where and when sediment that might contain fossils is deposited and preserved. The authors explore the exciting possibilities of stratigraphic paleobiology, and along the way demonstrate its great potential to answer some of the most critical questions about the history of life: How and why do environmental niches change over time? What is the tempo and mode of evolutionary change and what processes drive this change? How has the diversity of life changed through time, and what processes control this change? And, finally, what is the tempo and mode of change in ecosystems over time?

Marine Conservation Paleobiology

Author : Carrie L. Tyler
ISBN : 9783319737959
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 13 MB
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This volume describes and explores the emerging discipline of conservation paleobiology, and addresses challenges faced by established and young Conservation Paleobiologist's alike. In addition, this volume includes applied research highlighting how conservation paleobiology can be used to understand ecosystem response to perturbation in near and deep time. Across 10 chapters, the book aims to (1) explore the goals of conservation paleoecology as a science, (2) highlight how conservation paleoecology can be used to understand ecosystems’ responses to crises, (3) provide case studies of applications to modern ecosystems, (4) develop novel applications of paleontological approaches to neontological data, and (5) present a range of ecosystem response and recovery through environmental crises, from high-resolution impacts on organism interactions to the broadest scale of responses of the entire marine biosphere to global change. The volume will be of interest to paleoecologists, paleobiologists, and conservation biologists.

Rereading The Fossil Record

Author : David Sepkoski
ISBN : 9780226748559
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 81 MB
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Although fossils have provided some of the most important evidence for evolution, the discipline of paleontology has not always had a central place in evolutionary biology. Beginning in Darwin's day, and for much of the twentieth century, paleontologists were often regarded as mere fossil collectors by many evolutionary biologists, their attempts to contribute to evolutionary theory ignored or regarded with scorn. In the 1950s, however, paleontologists began mounting a counter-movement that insisted on the valid, important, and original contribution of paleontology to evolutionary theory. This movement, called “paleobiology” by its proponents, advocated for an approach to the fossil record that was theoretical, quantitative, and oriented towards explaining the broad patterns of evolution and extinction in the history of life. Rereading the Fossil Record provides, as never before, a historical account of the origin, rise, and importance of paleobiology, from the mid-nineteenth century to the late 1980s. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, David Sepkoski shows how the movement was conceived and promoted by a small but influential group of paleontologists—including Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge, among others—and examines the intellectual, disciplinary, and political dynamics involved in the ascendency of paleobiology. By emphasizing the close relationship between paleobiology and other evolutionary disciplines, this book writes a new chapter in the history of evolutionary biology, while also offering insights into the dynamics of disciplinary change in modern science.

Pond Conservation In Europe

Author : Beat Oertli
ISBN : 9048190886
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 29 MB
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Ponds are an exceptional freshwater resource around the world and represent thirty percent of the global surface area of standing water. Furthermore, the millions of ponds which exist exhibit a particularly high biodiversity and have a high potential for ecosystem functions and services. Despite these impressive features, ponds face many threats from a variety of human activities and receive little or no protection under European and national legislation. Consequently, there is an urgent need to protect, consolidate and increase the pond resource in Europe. In order to achieve these objectives, the European Pond Conservation Network (EPCN) was launched 2004 in Geneva. Its aim is to promote the awareness, understanding and conservation of these small water bodies in the European landscape. This volume of “Developments in Hydrobiology” presents a selection of 31 papers presented during EPCN conferences held in 2006 in France (Toulouse) and in 2008 in Spain (Valencia). They represent a diverse collection of themes from across the continent and North Africa and present new and original insights into topics as wide ranging as pond biodiversity; human disturbance; landscape ecology; ecological assessment and monitoring; practical management measures; ecological restoration; hydrology and climate change; invasive species and threatened species.

Deep Time Analysis

Author : Mark A.S. McMenamin
ISBN : 9783319742564
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 22 MB
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Using a series of case studies, the book demonstrates the power of dynamic analysis as applied to the fossil record. The book considers how we think about certain types of paleontological questions and shows how to answer them. The analytical tools presented here will have wide application to other fields of knowledge; as such the book represents a major contribution to the deployment of modern scientific method as it builds on author's previous book, Dynamic Paleontology. Students and seasoned professionals alike will find this book to be of great utility for refining their approach to their ongoing and future research projects.

The Second Jurassic Dinosaur Rush

Author : Paul D. Brinkman
ISBN : 9780226074733
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 23 MB
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The so-called “Bone Wars” of the 1880s, which pitted Edward Drinker Cope against Othniel Charles Marsh in a frenzy of fossil collection and discovery, may have marked the introduction of dinosaurs to the American public, but the second Jurassic dinosaur rush, which took place around the turn of the twentieth century, brought the prehistoric beasts back to life. These later expeditions—which involved new competitors hailing from leading natural history museums in New York, Chicago, and Pittsburgh—yielded specimens that would be reconstructed into the colossal skeletons that thrill visitors today in museum halls across the country. Reconsidering the fossil speculation, the museum displays, and the media frenzy that ushered dinosaurs into the American public consciousness, Paul Brinkman takes us back to the birth of dinomania, the modern obsession with all things Jurassic. Featuring engaging and colorful personalities and motivations both altruistic and ignoble, The Second Jurassic Dinosaur Rush shows that these later expeditions were just as foundational—if not more so—to the establishment of paleontology and the budding collections of museums than the more famous Cope and Marsh treks. With adventure, intrigue, and rivalry, this is science at its most swashbuckling.

The Paleobiological Revolution

Author : David Sepkoski
ISBN : 9780226748597
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 3 MB
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The Paleobiological Revolution chronicles the incredible ascendance of the once-maligned science of paleontology to the vanguard of a field. With the establishment of the modern synthesis in the 1940s and the pioneering work of George Gaylord Simpson, Ernst Mayr, and Theodosius Dobzhansky, as well as the subsequent efforts of Stephen Jay Gould, David Raup, and James Valentine, paleontology became embedded in biology and emerged as paleobiology, a first-rate discipline central to evolutionary studies. Pairing contributions from some of the leading actors of the transformation with overviews from historians and philosophers of science, the essays here capture the excitement of the seismic changes in the discipline. In so doing, David Sepkoski and Michael Ruse harness the energy of the past to call for further study of the conceptual development of modern paleobiology.

Conservation Of Shared Environments

Author : Laura L—pez-Hoffman
ISBN : 0816528772
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 61 MB
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The United States and MexicoÕs shared environment extends far beyond the political line. For instance, it comprises the plant and animal species whose natural distributions extend deep into each nation along with the waters in rivers and aquifers that support ecosystem function far removed from the border. Conservation of Shared Environments presents a broad perspective on the ecological, social and political challenges of conserving biodiversity across the U.S.-Mexico border. Covering topics as diverse as wildlife and grassland preservation, water rights, ecosystem services, indigenous peoples, and the ecological consequences of border security, the contributors illustrate collaborative, transboundary efforts to overcome cross-border conservation challenges. This volume offers scientific analysis as well as insight for bridging gaps between researchers, policymakers, and the public. For more information on this and other volumes in the series, visit The Edge Web site.

Conservation Biology

Author : Andrew S. Pullin
ISBN : 9781139441315
Genre : Nature
File Size : 63. 17 MB
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Conservation biology is fast emerging as a major new discipline, which incorporates biological principles in the design of effective strategies for the sustainable management of populations, species and entire ecosystems. This beautifully illustrated textbook introduces students to conservation biology, the science of preserving biodiversity. It begins by taking the reader on a tour of the many and varied ecosystems of our planet, providing a setting in which to explore the factors that have led to the alarming loss of biodiversity that we now see. In particular the fundamental problems of habitat loss and fragmentation, habitat disturbance and the non-sustainable exploitation of species in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are explored. The methods that have been developed to address these problems, from the most traditional forms of conservation, to new approaches at genetic to landscape scales are then discussed, showing how the science can be put into practice.

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